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Glossary of Anglo-Indian Terms

'Amrita Bazar Patrika'
the journal of the Indian League, founded in 1875 by Sisir Kumar Ghose in Calcutta as a radical alternative to the British Indian Association.

Bande mataram
literally 'Hail to thee, Mother', this is a song composed by Bankim Chandra Chatterji after the Indian Mutiny 1857. It is a traditional Hindu song which gained acceptance as the national anthem in the twentieth century, although not initially by the Muslims.

Communal
of or pertaining to a particular ethnic community

C.P.I.
Communist Party of India.

De novo
afresh; over again from the beginning.

Dominion
a self-governing country, but linked to Britain because it recognises the British monarch as its head of state.

Dyarchy
the division of Indian government in the provinces into reserved and transferred subjects. Reserved subjects covered the key areas of government including finance, taxation and law and order, and were left under the control of the British Governors. Transferred subjects covered areas like agriculture, education, public health, transport and local government which became the responsibility of elected Indian ministers.

England Zindabad
Long live England.

Goonda
hooligan.

Gurdwara
Sikh temple.

Hartal
stoppage of work as sign of mourning or protest.

Id
a Muslim religious festival or holy observance.

I.N.A.
Indian National Army.

Indianisation
the replacement of Europeans or other foreigners by Indians in positions of authority.

jagir
grant of right to receive land revenue from a village or villages, sometimes conditional on the maintenance of troops or other services.

jagirdar
holder of a jagir.

Jai England
Victory to England.

Jai Hind
Victory to India.

jathas
band or group.

ki jai
Victory of …

Laodicean
one who is indifferent to religion.

lathi
a heavy stick.

maidan
an open space in or near a town.

Mussalmans
Muslims.

Nankana Sahib
an historic Sikh temple, the birth-place of Guru Nanak, founder of the Sikh faith. It is situated 64 km from Lahore in Pakistan.

Negotiable Instruments Act
This Act was passed in 1881 and consisted or rules for the facility and regulation of trade and commerce. It tried to reconcile and assimilate Indian and European laws on each subject.

paramountcy
what a Paramount power exercises over countries or states within its control, i.e. the power to interfere in the internal government of a country or state, as well as in its foreign relations and external and internal security.

Pindaris
gangs of mounted plunderers who terrorised central India after the disintegration of the Moghul Empire and were only finally broken up by the large-scale military operations undertaken by Lord Hastings in 1817-19.

pugrees
turbans.

quorum
the lowest number of members of a committee or board etc needed to be present before business can be transacted.

R.I.A.F.
Royal Indian Air Force.

R.I.A.S.C.
Royal Indian Army Service Corps.

R.I.N.
Royal Indian Navy.

Rs.
rupees.

Ryot
a tenant of the soil; farmer or cultivator.

Scheduled castes
at the lower end of the Hindu caste scale, also called the Depressed Classes, or Untouchables.

Secede
to detach a piece of land from a federal union.

sovereign
absolute and independent authority.

Swaraj
self-government.

Ultra vires
in excess of the power possessed; transcending authority.

U.P.
United Provinces, an area in the northern part of India. (See document 1)

village chowkidars
village watchman.

viz
namely.

Zamindar
farmer of revenue; landed proprietor, landlord.