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Glossary: A

A glossary of special terminology used in India during the British Administration.

Adalats
Courts of first instance in India administering mainly Hindu and Islamic Law.
See also Sadr Adalat, Supreme Courts

Addiscombe Military Seminary
The East India Company's Military Seminary was established in January 1809 at Addiscombe Place, near Croydon. Its purpose was to provide up to two years' general and technical education for youths of between fourteen and eighteen who had been nominated for officer cadetships in the Company's forces. Attendance at Addiscombe was compulsory for artillery and engineer cadets, optional for cavalry and infantry cadets. After the demise of the Company in 1858, Addiscombe was converted into the Royal India Military College and continued to function till its closure in August 1861.
See L/MIL/1 and 9, also L/AG/45
See also East India College (Haileybury)

Advocate
The equivalent in the Indian High Courts, (as in the Scottish High Courts), of an English barrister.

Annuities
See Civil Annuities, Medical Annuities.

Apothecary
The title given to the various grades of warrant officer in the Indian Military Subordinate Medical Service. The rank of Apothecary was abolished in the Subordinate Medical Service in 1894 and replaced by that of Assistant Surgeon (see below). Apothecaries in the Indian Army undertook general medical duties - by the early 19th century the word was used in the more general sense of medical practitioner as well as in its original meaning of pharmacist.

Assistant Surgeon
Until 1873 the most junior grade in the Bengal, Madras, and Bombay Medical Services (Indian Medical Service). Abolished in the IMS in 1873 it replaced the grade of Apothecary (see above.) in the Military Subordinate Medical Service in 1894.

Asylum Press Almanac
See Madras Almanac.

Attorneys
The equivalent in India of solicitors in the UK.

Auxiliary Force, India
From 1920 the equivalent in India of the Territorial Army in the UK i.e. part-time regiments of European soldiers who could be fully mobilised in time of war. Prior to 1920 they were known as the Indian Volunteer Force (1857-1917) and the Indian Defence Force (1917-1920). There are no service files for either officers or other ranks but the names of officers appear in Bengal, Madras and Bombay Army Lists [L/MIL/17/2, 3 and 4] and in Indian Army Lists 1889-1947 [L/MIL/17/5 and RR]. The war services of AFI officers are recorded in Indian Army List Supplements from July 1922 onwards.