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Glossary: J

A glossary of special terminology used in India during the British Administration.

Jemadar
In the EIC/Indian Army the most junior rank of Indian Commissioned Officer, equivalent to a Lieutenant in the British Army.

Judges
In British India there were a multiplicity of courts and judicial titles but it is useful to distinguish between the following four types of judge:
1) Barristers of England or Ireland or Scottish Advocates, not members of the HEICCS/ICS, appointed before 1862 to be Judges of the Supreme Courts in India, after 1862 as Judges of the High Courts in India - they served a limited number of years but were entitled to Indian Government pensions.
2) Members of the Judicial Branch of the EIC/Indian Civil Service or of the Uncovenanted Civil Services - the great majority of judges fell into this category. Before 1862 the upper echelon served as Judges of the Adalat and Sadr Adalat Courts, after 1862 as District and Sessions Judges and Judges of the High Courts/Chief Courts - from the late 19th century onwards they were encouraged to obtain legal degrees and/or qualify as barristers. Below this upper echelon came Subordinate Judges and Munsifs.
3) Magistrates/Collectors - partly members of the ICS and partly drawn from the Uncovenanted Service. Their duties were primarily administrative but as magistrates they exercised judicial authority in minor cases.
4) Pleaders of the Indian High Courts not in Indian Government Service appointed after 1862 to fill a certain proportion of High Court Judgeships and District and Sessions Judgeships.

Junior Merchant
The second of the four classes into which the East India Company's civil servants were originally divided, the others being 1) Senior Merchant, 3) Factor, 4) Writer. As the name indicates it originally had a commercial significance but it continued to be used as a rank in the Company's service long after the duties of the Company's officials had ceased to be primarily commercial - it last appears as a civil service rank in the East India Register in 1841.