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Glossary: S

A glossary of special terminology used in India during the British Administration.

Sadr Adalat
A chief court of appeal from courts administering Hindu and Islamic Law - for the different types of Sadr Adalat see below.

Sadr Diwani Adalat
Until 1862 the chief civil court of appeal from courts administering Hindu and Islamic Law. In 1862 the Sadr Adalats of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay were amalgamated with the Supreme Courts to form the High Courts.

Sadr Faujdari Adalat
Until 1862 the chief criminal court of appeal in the Madras and Bombay Presidencies from courts administering Hindu and Islamic Law. In 1862 the Sadr Adalats of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay were amalgamated with the Supreme Courts to form the High Courts.

Sadr Nizamat Adalat
Until 1862 the chief criminal court of appeal in the Bengal Presidency from courts administering Hindu and Islamic Law. In 1862 the Sadr Adalats of Calcutta, Madras and Bombay were amalgamated with the Supreme Courts to form the High Courts.

Senior Merchant
The first of the four classes into which the East India Company's civil servants were originally divided, the others being 2) Junior Merchant, 3) Factor and 4) Writer. As the title indicates it originally had a commercial significance, but it continued to be used as a rank in the Company's service long after the duties of the Company's officials had ceased to be primarily commercial - it last appears as a civil service rank in the East India Register in 1841.

Sepoy
In the EIC/Indian Army an ordinary native infantryman equivalent to a Sowar in the Indian Cavalry.

Silladar
An Indian cavalryman who provided his own arms and horse instead of having them supplied by Government - the Silladar system originated in the irregular regiments of native cavalry but was extended to the regular cavalry of the Bengal and Bombay Armies in 1861.

Sowar
In the EIC/Indian Army an ordinary native cavalryman equivalent to a Sepoy in the Indian Infantry and to a Trooper in the British Cavalry.

Special Civil Services
Special departments of the Indian administration eg the Indian Forest Service, Indian Police, Indian Political Service, etc. to be distinguished both from the Covenanted Civil Service and the Uncovenanted Civil Service. The top echelons of the special services were recruited in a variety of ways - the Indian Political Service was recruited partly from the HEICCS/ICS, partly from officers of the EIC/Indian Army - the Indian Police in its earlier days included many officers of the Indian Army but from 1893 onwards recruited its upper division mainly by an annual competitive examination held in the UK.

Staff Corps
A Staff Corps for the Bengal, Madras and Bombay Armies (i.e. the Indian Army) was set up in 1861 - the Staff Corps was to provide officers for the native regiments, and for the staff and army departments, as also for civil and political appointments for which Indian Army officers might be eligible - officers already in employ had the option of joining the Staff Corps or staying on under the old conditions. The Staff Corps therefore at least as far as post-1860 entrants were concerned was virtually synonymous with the Regular Officer Corps of the Indian Army and is not to be understood in the narrow sense of officers holding staff appointments. In 1903 in order to avoid confusion the designation 'Indian Staff Corps' as applied to officers on regimental duty was withdrawn and replaced by the more appropriate term 'Indian Army'.

Subadar
A rank of Indian infantry officer intermediate between Jemadar and Subadar-Major, equivalent to a Captain in the British Army and to a Risaldar in the Indian Cavalry.

Subadar-Major
The most senior rank of Indian infantry officer, equivalent to a Risaldar-Major in the Indian cavalry.

Sub-Conductor
The lower of the two appointments within the Warrant Officer rank in the EIC/Indian Army, the higher being that of Conductor. Sub-Conductors and Conductors worked mainly in the Ordnance, Commissariat and Public Works Departments. Before 1860 Sub-Conductors were recruited from NCOs of the Town Major's List/Effective Supernumeraries, after 1860 from NCOs of the Unattached List.

Subordinate Civil Service
Name given from 1892 to the lower echelon of the Uncovenanted Civil Service. Members of the Subordinate Civil Service held the posts of Tahsildar in the Executive Branch and Munsif in the Judicial Branch.

Superior Services
Collective name for the Indian Civil Service and the top echelons of the Special Civil Services, until the 1920s mainly recruited from British natural-born subjects in the UK.

Superior Services (India) Family Pension Fund (SSIFPF)
Established in 1928, provided benefits for the widows and children of members of the Superior Services, India, other than the ICS.
Family registers, L/AG/23/14. Payment books, mainly L/AG/21/33.

Supreme Courts
Established at Calcutta, 1774, Madras 1801, Bombay 1823. They administered mainly English civil and criminal law - in 1862 the Supreme Courts were replaced by High Courts which combined the functions formerly exercised by the Supreme Courts and the Sadr Adalats (see above).