Who is Heathcliff?
Illustrations to Wuthering Heights by Clare Leighton
A brooding portrait of Heathcliff by Clare Leighton, 1931.View images from this item (12)
Copyright: © By arrangement with the Estate of Clare Leighton
Heathcliff’s originsHeathcliff‘s origins are deeply mysterious: we know that he is picked up on the streets of Liverpool by Mr Earnshaw but little else for certain. Liverpool was both a major port for Ireland (where the Brontë family originated and which suffered a terrible famine in the 1840s, the decade the novel was published) and of the slave trade. But the way that Emily chose to write the novel with interlocking and inset narrators means that we can never be certain about Heathcliff: the story of his vengeful and disastrous marriage, for example, is told by his estranged wife Isabella to Nelly Dean, the housekeeper, who then tells Mr Lockwood, the southern intruder, who in turn tells us. Like Nelly, we never learn ‘where he was born, and who were his parents, and how he got his money’ (ch. 4). Nor is it ever clear what our feelings should be. He is described in many different ways by the characters of the book: old Mr Earnshaw calls him both ‘a gift of God’ and ‘dark almost as if it came from the devil’; Mrs Earnshaw rejects him as a ‘gypsy brat’ (ch. 4); Mr Linton thinks he is ‘little Lascar, or an American or Spanish castaway’ (ch. 5); Nelly both consoles him with the thought that his father might be ‘the Emperor of China and your mother an Indian queen’ and asks if he is a ‘ghoul or vampire’ (chs. 7; 34). Our response to Heathcliff, like that of the characters of the novel, is constantly in motion.
‘A sentiment fierce and inhuman’In 1850, after her sister’s death, Charlotte Brontë wrote a preface to the novel in which she describes Heathcliff as ‘unredeemed; never once swerving in his arrow-straight course to perdition’, someone who only once shows human feeling, in his treatment of Hareton Earnshaw. His love for Catherine, writes Charlotte, is ‘a sentiment fierce and inhuman: a passion such as might boil and glow in the bad essence of some evil genius; a fire that might form the tormented centre--the ever-suffering soul of a magnate of the infernal world.’ Apart from his regard for Hareton, he is like ‘a man's shape animated by demon life - a Ghoul - an Afreet.’ This is too simple a view but it shows how violently disturbing a figure Heathcliff is, how he seems hardly to belong to the human world at all.
Charlotte Brontë's 1850 Preface to Wuthering Heights
From Charlotte Bronte's Preface to Wuthering Heights, 1850.View images from this item (10)
Review of Wuthering Heights from the Examiner
In this 1848 review of Wuthering Heights from The Examiner newspaper the critic views Heathcliff as a shocking, disturbing character.View images from this item (2)
Copyright: © British Library Board
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