Education and Urban Society, vol. 40, 2008, p. 590-612
This article focuses on how parental school choices affect the degree of racial and academic segregation in charter schools. The research design allows a direct comparison of the racial and academic conditions of the more racially integrated district schools that students left and the more racially segregated charter schools they chose. It emerges that parents enrol their students into charter schools with at least the same degree of academic integration as the district schools that students left. The academic and racial segregation results are used to test the extent to which students congregate into specialised charter schools according to hypothesized patterns and the findings call into question the assertion of charter school advocates that segregated conditions in charter schools are the result of students self-selecting into specialised charter schools.
Children and Youth Services Review, vol. 30, 2008, p. 1081-1087
Many pupils in foster care are struggling in US schools. A majority of these children do not have access to the special programmes, out-of-school-hours activities, and sports that are key to obtaining a well-rounded education. In sum, the education of foster children is often overlooked, and they are one of the most educationally vulnerable populations in US schools. Teachers need to be given incentives by federal, state and local governments to develop innovative programmes that help these pupils succeed. The author argues that:
B. Stensaker, E. Brandt & N.H. Solum
Quality Assurance in Education, vol. 16, Summer 2008, p. 211-223
This paper identifies and reviews changes in systems of external examination in Denmark, Norway and the UK. The authors conclude that systems of external examinations are being transformed from a focus on student performance to a focus on programme quality and coherence in all three countries. The study shows that older and newer forms of quality assurance are becoming more integrated with the potential of creating quality assurance procedures addressing teaching and learning issues more directly.
T. K. Tse
Education and Urban Society, vol. 40, 2008, p. 628-652
School choice programmes have proliferated around the world since the 1980s. Following this international trend, the Direct Subsidy Scheme (DSS) was launched in 1991 to revitalise Hong Kong's private school sector. DSS schools receive a similar subsidy per student to that received by aided schools, but they may charge fees and have greater control over curricula, entrance requirements, and management than their state school counterparts. Drawing on a number of documents and reports over the period 1987-2006, this article explores the discrepancies between rhetoric and reality, showing how a policy purporting to appeal to choice, diversity, and competition undermines equality, community, and democracy. The author concludes that, under the provision of DSS, the benefits some parents and schools enjoy by being afforded more choices are often achieved at the expense of fewer choices for others.
M. Bagues, M.S. Labini and N. Zinovyeva
CESifo Economic Studies, vol. 54, 2008, p. 149-176
In Italy, university grading standards are assumed to be similar across institutions. This presumption justifies the legal value given to university titles and explains why public funding of universities is increasingly related to the number of diplomas or grade points they assign. This article empirically demonstrates the existence of differences in grading standards across Italian universities based on three editions of a survey of a representative sample of graduates. This result suggests that funding schemes based on students' academic performance do not necessarily reward universities offering the best value degrees. Students graduating from institutions routinely awarding high grades and liberally funded on this basis had a stronger probability of being unemployed or ending up in low paid work.
London: Commonwealth Secretariat, 2008
While double-shift schooling primarily aims to extend access and minimise costs, some systems only achieve these goals at the expense of educational quality. Consequently, policy-makers may be faced with difficult choices when designing such systems. This third edition draws on experiences in a wide range of countries to highlight the advantages and problems of double-shift systems and is designed to assist national and regional policy-makers as well as headteachers and others responsible for running double-shift schools. Comparison is also made with single-shift systems and also with systems incorporating triple or even quadruple shifts.
T. Tuwor and M. Sossou
International Journal of Inclusive Education, vol. 12, 2008, p. 363-379
Despite some significant increases since the 1960s, girls' enrolment in primary schools in Africa still lags behind that of boys. This paper examines some of the reasons for this persistent gender gap in the three African countries of Ghana, Nigeria and Togo within the West Africa sub-region. It discusses gender relations, cultural practices such as early marriage, child slavery, child fostering/trafficking, poverty and multiple household duties for girls as some of the contributing factors. It is argued that unless these cultural beliefs and values are changed and mandatory measures are put in place, such as holding parents accountable and responsible, gender parity and quality education for all will not be achieved in Africa. A number of strategies for improving school attendance and retention for females are also discussed.
H. Li and N.C.M. Wong
International Journal of Early Years Education, vol. 16, 2008, p.115-131
This study investigated how early learning performance indicators, newly developed by the government and based on the western ideology of child learning, were implemented in a Chinese context like Hong Kong. Twelve early childhood settings, involving 5747 children and 284 staff, volunteered to implement the indicators over two years and the process was observed and analysed. The socio-contextual factors and the educational implication of the findings are discussed but, overall, the results indicated that: implementing a quality assurance cycle took time, resources and commitment; the implementation helped to enhance practitioners' professionalism; and teacher professionalism was the key to the success of the quality assurance mechanism.
G. Crosling, L. Thomas & M. Heaney
Abingdon: Routledge, 2008
This book explores the issue of student retention in higher education and reviews teaching and learning approaches that encourage students to continue with their studies. The book features action research-based case studies by HE teachers in a range of countries; identifies practical curriculum development strategies that are student responsive, engaging and active; and explores student diversity, alternative teaching and learning approaches and disciplinary study.
R. Boarini and others
CESifo Economic Studies, vol. 54, 2008, p. 277-312
Many OECD countries are aiming to reform their higher education (HE) systems. Calls for reform have been fuelled by low quality and excessive duration of studies, substantial drop-out rates and mismatches between qualifications gained and employer needs. OECD countries proposing to reform their higher education systems face two main challenges: how to make the most of public expenditure on HE and how to increase resources invested in HE without further draining the public purse. This article explores the main determinants of investment in HE. To this end it develops estimates of three main drivers of graduation patterns, namely institutional arrangements for HE supply, availability of funding for students, and private returns on investment in HE. It then empirically assesses how these three factors affect graduation ratios. Based on this analysis, it discusses routes to the reform of HE systems in OECD countries.
International Journal of Research & Method in Education, vol. 31, 2008, p. 193-209
School systems may be usefully characterised according to Turner's proposed ideal types of sponsored and contest mobility. Germany is a critical case with respect to this typology because its secondary school system is stratified and selective, and yet it offers the opportunity for upward and downward mobility. Drawing on an analysis of a German longitudinal dataset, this paper addresses the question of flexibility or rigidity of the school system, exploring the ways in which factors other than pupils' ability influence selection processes within that system.
M. Bottery (Guest editor)
School leadership and management, vol. 28, 2008, p. 211-300 (special issue)
Not only must educational leaders deal with those things that happen at personal and local levels, they must also respond to national changes. In turn, driving national legislation are global pressures and the 'travelling policies' which derive from them. All of this makes for greater complexity so to understand what is coming is increasingly an essential skill for educational leaders. The five papers in this special issue all make a contribution to this topic by recognising the different contexts and attempt to understand relationships between them, potential outcomes, and ways of resolution.
A. Sandberg and T. Vuorinen
International Journal of Early Years Education, vol. 16, 2008, p. 151-161
The purpose of this Swedish study was to elicit preschool teachers' and parents' views on both established and future forms of cooperation between the preschool and the home and was based on individual and focus-group interviews. Results showed that cooperation mainly revolved around the individual child and the form of cooperation which was least established tended to be the school council. Given that different forms of cooperation appeal to different parents, the authors' conclude it is important for preschool teachers to provide varied and rich forms of cooperation; in this way there will be a greater opportunity to reach all parents.
G. Demange, R. Fenge and S. Uebelmesser
CESifo Economic Studies, vol. 54, 2008, p. 248-276
Mobile students and graduates react to the institutional framework of higher education and in their turn induce changes in government policies as competition between educational institutions and countries becomes more intense. This article analyses how government decisions about the financial regime and quality level of higher education interact with individual incentives to invest in higher education in closed economies and in economies open to migration.
S. Kelchtermans and F. Verboven
CESifo Economic Studies, vol. 54, 2008, p. 204-228
It is generally agreed that European universities are lagging behind their US counterparts partly because of insufficient investment. Tight government budgetary constraints make it unrealistic to increase public spending on higher education, and politicians in many countries are reluctant to charge tuition fees. This article reports on a funding system reform in Flanders (Belgium), which aimed to provide incentives for institutions to cut costs by reducing the large diversity and duplication of courses. The scheme aimed to make the higher education system more cost effective and therefore reduce the need to increase public funding.
International Studies in Sociology of Education, vol. 18, 2008, p. 31-45
Schools are a stabilising feature in the unsettled lives of refugee students as they provide safe spaces for new encounters, interactions and learning opportunities as well as delivering literacy which is the key to educational success, post-school options, life choices, social participation and settlement. The author argues that currently Australian schools are poorly funded and equipped to provide effective English as a Second Language teaching and support which means a new cohort of refugee students, mainly from Africa and the Middle East, is struggling. The article identifies the limitations of piecemeal partnership interventions and the domination of psychological approaches that individualise the issues and overemphasise pre-displacement conditions of trauma. The author argues for good practice approaches to schooling and settlement that involve whole-school accounting for organisational processes and structures, policy, procedure, pedagogy and curricula.
T. Roxå and K. Mårtensson
Higher Education Research & Development, vol. 27, 2008, p. 155-168
This paper explores issues and processes in relation to strategic change in higher education institutions (HEIs), with a focus on educational developers and their ability to contribute to the development of teaching and learning. It describes a national Swedish initiative designed to enhance strategic perspectives and scholarly knowledge formation within the educational development field. The initiative, its results and conclusions are considered in relation to other higher education systems.
F. van der Ploeg and R. Veugelers
CESifo Economic Studies, vol. 54, 2008, p. 99-120
Universities have a crucial role to play in constructing knowledge-based economies. Europe needs well educated graduates to drive forward economic growth. Unfortunately European universities are hampered by a combination of excessive public control, bad governance, and insufficient funding. As a result they are unable to compete with their counterparts in the US and Australia for the most talented academics and students, and miss out on opportunities for cutting edge research and innovation. The authors argue that the foremost European universities need more autonomy to select students, reward staff, design new programmes, attract more funds and compete more effectively in an increasingly tough environment.