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Welfare Reform on the Web (December 2008): Child welfare - overseas

Child poverty and changes in child poverty

W.-H. Chen and M. Corak

Demography, vol. 45, 2008, p. 537-553

This research seeks to understand the nature and reasons for changes in child poverty rates in 12 OECD countries in the 1990s. It examines the relative role of demographic factors, labour markets and income transfers from the state in determining the magnitude and direction of the changes. Results show that family and demographic factors are limited in their ability to cushion children from detrimental shocks arising in the labour market or in the government sector. Increases in the labour market engagement of mothers consistently lowered child poverty rates, while decreases in the employment rates and earnings of fathers raised them. Finally, there is no single road to lower child poverty rates. Reforms to income transfers aimed at increasing the supply of labour may or may not end up lowering the child poverty rate.

Young Mothers and Babies Wellness Program

S.M. Love and others

Children and Youth Services Review, vol. 30, 2008, p. 1437-1446

The Young Mothers and Babies Wellness Program provides comprehensive mental health services for young mothers leaving probation department or child welfare services supervision in the USA. It provides evidence-based mental health treatment to help young mothers recover from mental illness. It also creates an environment of active support and education that is dedicated to establishing nurturing and responsive relationships between mothers and their young children. If these mothers are helped to achieve the multiple goals of mental health, sobriety, economic well-being, positive social skills and secure attachment relationships with their children, they can begin to break the cycle of intergenerational poverty, mental illness and maltreatment that plagues US society.

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