V. Sheared, J. McCabe and D, Umeki
Education and Urban Society, vol. 32, 2000, p. 167-187
Article first attempts to deconstruct the phenomenon of marginalisation and then analyses its impact on those responsible for delivering basic skills programmes and the individuals who are sent to those programmes because of welfare reform. Then describes the ways in which the adult community college and community based adult literacy programmes have used their resources, made adjustments to obtain funding, sought to provide quality programmes, and attempted to make sense out of federal and state policies while helping people to get off welfare by obtaining minimum wage jobs. Rather than securing sufficiency, these jobs often lead to further impoverishment and marginalisation within society.
R. E. Goodin
The Political Quarterly, vol. 71, no. 1, 2000, p. 144-150
The article examines the recent changes to the four pillars of the social security, ie: the state, the market, the family and the community. The state is increasingly backing out of the business of social welfare provision at just the same time as the other pillars are being eroded. For many people, market, family and community pillars prove to be inadequate substitutes for reduced state provision for social security. The author concludes that unconditional benefit schemes are better suited to the increasingly non-standardised world towards which we are moving.
B. Garrett and S, Glied
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, vol. 19, 2000, p. 275-295
Article examines the extent of interactions or spillovers between the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) in the US. The Supreme Court decision Sullivan v Zebley and less restrictive mental health disability criteria for children increased the number of children receiving SSI benefits from 340,000 in 1990 to more than 1 million in 1996. Results show that child SSI participation increased more in states with lower AFDC payments and higher SSI payments, suggesting that SSI and AFDC are used as substitutes by children in low income households.
Contemporary Economic Policy, vol. 18, 2000, p. 194-204
Study discusses efficiency issues related to social insurance provision and their implications for the new three-pillar pension system and three-tier health insurance system in China. It shows that the efficiency of these systems can be improved substantially through some restructuring. The pension system should be moved to a mostly fully funded system, accruing most of the contributions to individual accounts and changing Pillar 1 to a supplementary pension. Health insurance should be converted to market insurance by mandating employers to purchase insurance for their employees.
G. J. Duncan, K. M. Harris and J. Boisjoly
Social Service Review, vol. 74, 2000, p. 55-75
Using Panel Study of Income Dynamics data, authors estimate the number and characteristics of recipient families likely to be affected by the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunities Act's 60 month time limit. Results show that about 40% of the current caseload is likely to hit the 60 month limit on total receipt. In the case of states with a 24-month time limit, the fraction of those likely to hit the limits increases to 66%.