O. Kangas, U. Lundberg and N. Ploug
Social Policy and Administration, vol. 44, 2010, p. 265-284
This paper presents a comparative analysis of pension reforms in Sweden, Finland and Denmark. In Sweden, the whole system was changed in one big reform, but in Finland and Denmark consecutive small adjustments produced a new pension design. In Sweden politicians planned the reform, in Finland and Denmark labour market actors were the driving force, and in none of the cases did consultation with pensioners' organisations play an important role. All three cases show a high degree of obfuscation: the reforms, particularly the gradual changes, were difficult for the general public to comprehend and their effects will only become visible after decades.