Click here to skip to content

Welfare Reform on the Web (June 2011): Child welfare - overseas

Child poverty, evidence and policy: mainstreaming children in international development

N. Jones and A. Sumner

Bristol: Policy Press, 2011

This book is about the opportunities and challenges involved in mainstreaming knowledge about children in international development policy and practice. It focuses on the ideas, networks and institutions that shape the development of evidence about child poverty and wellbeing, and the use of such evidence in development policy debates. It also pays particular attention to the importance of power relations in influencing the extent to which children's voices are heard and acted upon by international development actors. The book weaves together theory, mixed method approaches and case studies spanning a number of policy sectors and diverse developing country contexts in Africa, Asia and Latin America.

The effectiveness of social marketing in reduction of teenage pregnancies: a review of studies in developed countries

A.S. Wakhisi and others

Social Marketing Quarterly, vol. 17, Spring 2011, p. 56-90 This article presents the results of a systematic review of the effectiveness of a social marketing approach in teenage pregnancy reduction interventions in developed countries. Twelve studies undertaken between 1990 and 2008 were selected for analysis. Results showed variation in intervention effects across specified outcomes (reduction in unintended pregnancies, delayed sexual initiation, contraceptive use at last intercourse, knowledge of contraception, and self-efficacy to refuse unwanted sex). Results suggest that social marketing can be an effective approach to reducing teenage pregnancies and influencing related behaviour change, but evidence is limited to particular outcomes/context and therefore inconclusive. Long term interventions were generally more effective than short-term ones for most outcomes. The impact on male participants' sexual behaviour was minimal in most studies.

Faith-based orphan care: addressing child-oriented goals and child rights in HIV/AIDS-affected communities

M.A. Currie and S.J. Heymann

Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies, vol. 6, 2011, p. 51-67

Faith-based organisations (FBOs) are a primary source of care for many children affected by AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, yet relatively little is known about their specific approaches and services. National governments are also increasingly relying on FBOs to help them meet their Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and fulfil their responsibilities under the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). This article looks at two FBOs in South Africa providing care for HIV affected children and families and explores the extent to which each addresses the objectives of the MDGs and CRC. Both organisations provide important services with regard to the MDGs and Article 6 of the Convention, which relates to life, survival and development. However, the extent to which the two organisations respected Article 3 of the Convention, which relates to prioritising the nuclear family and preserving the identity of the child, differed.

Governmental interventions and youth physical activity in France

R. Recours and others

Child: Care, Health and Development, vol. 37, 2011, p. 309-312

Promotion of physical activity to reduce the risk of chronic disease is a public health priority in Europe and North America. However, data from a representative sample of 2474 French young people show that, despite a 7-year Ministry of Health strategy to promote good nutrition and physical activity, adolescents' motivation to participate in sport and exercise decreased significantly between 2001 and 2008.

Quality in early childhood services: an international perspective

H. Penn

Maidenhead: OUP, 2011

This book examines how quality and good practice in early childhood education and care (ECEC) ar interpreted and implemented in a variety of settings and circumstances. Drawing on her experience of research and policy making in a wide variety of countries, the author considers the variety of rationales that inform services for early childhood education and care. Services are organized, financed and delivered in many different ways across the world. The policies that have been adopted by governments, and the resources which are made available for implementing them, have shaped practice. On the one hand there are complex ideas about what children should be learning and how they should be learning. These ideas about curriculum and the training of teachers and carers may differ radically between countries. On the other hand policies have been prompted by the need to reconcile family and work obligations and to provide childcare to support working mothers, irrespective of educational concerns. The notions of economic competition and parental choice have led to the growth of private for-profit childcare services which promote a particular view of quality and achievement. Above all, growing inequality within countries, and between rich and poor countries, have undermined attempts to provide good quality services.

The shift towards family reunification in Romanian child welfare policy: an analysis of changing forms of governmental intervention in Romania

J. Leon

Children and Society, vol. 25, 2011, p. 228-238

This article employs the results of field research conducted in Bucharest in 2008 to suggest that caregivers possess complex understandings of their roles as both guardians and gatekeepers of the children within their care, highlighting the collision of public and private worlds that occurs in the rearing of a nation's children. It begins by discussing the public function of residential childcare institutions and the important social purpose these institutions serve in Romania. It then moves on to explore the shift in the Romanian public discourse towards a policy of family reunification and the reasons behind this shift. The change should be seen a shift in the tactics that the public sphere uses to manage private family relationships rather than a withdrawal of the state from the task of childcare.

The substance and sources of young children's healthy eating and physical activity knowledge: implications for obesity prevention efforts

J.D. Lanigan

Child: Care, Health and Development, vol. 37, 2011, p. 368-376

The prevalence of obesity among young children is increasing at an alarming rate. Global efforts to address the issue can benefit from understanding how young children's experiences across multiple contexts shape their perspectives on healthy weight. This study of young American children illustrates the developmental nature of their understanding of concepts associated with healthy eating and activity. The youngsters demonstrated greater understanding of healthy eating than healthy physical activity. Children were more adept at identifying healthy foods and explaining their benefits than identifying activities that could make their bodies healthy. The results suggest the need for increased focus on explaining the health benefits of physical activity as well as integrating physical activity into children's leisure time. Findings suggest that efforts to prevent childhood obesity should begin early and include consistent messages from the family, the media and early years professionals.

Teenage pregnancy prevention programs

E.M. Walker (guest editor)

Journal of Children and Poverty, vol. 17, 2011, p. 1-138

Teenage pregnancy prevention remains a major public health issue in the United States, which has assumed even greater prominence because of its intersection with race and class. Research has shown that risk factors increase, and protective factors decrease, for African-American young people, Hispanic young people, and adolescents living in poverty. While there is agreement on the need for the creation of sound public health approaches to teen pregnancy reduction, there is considerable debate on how to do so effectively. This special issue presents studies of seven teen pregnancy prevention programmes funded through the Adolescent Family Life Program and implemented in school and community settings such as public housing estates. All of the programmes highlighted are based on theories of change that explain the underlying mechanisms through which the respective interventions are likely to create alterations in adolescents' behaviours.

Search Welfare Reform on the Web