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Welfare Reform on the Web (August 2011): Education - overseas

Between ethnocentrism and Europeanism? An exploration of the effects of migration and European integration on curricula and policies in Greece

D. Faas

Ethnicities, vol.11, 2011, p. 163-183

Greek national identity has been challenged by processes of European integration and migration-related cultural diversity. This article begins with a socio-historical analysis of the impact of national, European and multicultural political agendas on education policy in Greece. Drawing on curriculum documents and semi-structured interviews, the article argues that these three agendas were put together in rather different ways, depending on the school material. History remained largely ethnocentric while geography and citizenship curricula veered between ethnocentrism and Europeanism; in doing so they marginalised topics concerned with migration and integration. Some policy makers also struggled to move beyond a mere recognition of the plural character of Greek society while others revealed more progressive views of a synthesis between notions of Europe and diversity.

Capacity-building in and for health promoting schools: results from a qualitative study

L. Gugglberger and W. Dür

Health Policy, vol.101, 2011, p. 37-43

In the WHO's Ottawa Charter, schools were identified as an important setting for health promotion. However, most health promotion interventions in schools at both national and international levels have not been very sustainable or effective. Several authors have observed an 'implementation gap' regarding health promotion programmes, meaning that they are not embedded in mainstream school life. This article suggests that the capacity of schools to sustain health promotion initiatives needs to be built up both internally and externally, in the sense of supportive structures in their political environment. This study investigates the capacities which Austrian schools can develop internally and the support they need from their external environment to implement health promotion initiatives. It is concluded that schools need external inputs such as human and financial resources that must be provided on a national and regional level. They also need to be provided with expertise in organisational development and change management in order to embed and institutionalise health promotion. Finally, schools can gain from cooperation with other schools, parents, and health promotion service providers, etc., and should be encouraged to develop such partnerships.

The changing role of public university towards the emerging idea of corporate university

I. S. Botshelo

International Journal of Education Economics and Development, vol. 2, 2011, pp. 130 - 139

This paper argues that resource allocation models are important tools that serve to maximise efficient utilisation of state funding and of human resources in times of economic and social change. The focus of this paper is on universities in developing countries and the University of Botswana in particular. Faced with diminishing revenue support from government and the demands of global competitiveness associated with knowledge production, there is pressure for public universities to attract funding from the state and other international organisations through their performance in programme and research offerings. The issue is, can the public university participate in knowledge production for economic exchange?

Creating good citizens in China: comparing Grade 7-9 school textbooks, 1997-2005

T. K. Tsea

The Journal of Moral Education, vol. 40, 2011, p. 161-180

Ideological indoctrination is explicit and pervasive in China, with the school curriculum used to mould the spirit and character of adolescents, fulfilling ideological and political purposes. But the exact content varies over time. Comparing two versions of textbooks published in 1997 and 2005, this paper depicts the continuities and changes in the curricular discourses centred on the notion of 'good citizen'. While keeping the official status of socialism and the Party leadership untouched, the new textbooks soften the presentation and packaging of the ideological content, very much in tandem with the soft authoritarianism practised since the post Deng era when China has been deeply involved in the processes of marketisation, liberalisation and globalisation. The new textbooks also adopt a stance of greater reconciliation with human rights and global citizenship. While being granted more autonomy and rights, young citizens are still expected to shoulder the mission of national revival and socialist modernisation-very much derived from official policies.

Critical educational program components for students with emotional and behavioral disorders: science, policy, and practice

R. L. Simpson, R. L. Peterson, and C. R. Smith

Remedial and Special Education, vol. 32, 2011, p. 230-242

In spite of recent US education reform and reorganization efforts requiring the use of research-based methods, the fundamental elements of an effective programme for children and youth with emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD) have not been succinctly identified. This article presents the essential features of programmes for students with EBD. Programme elements include (a) qualified and committed professionals, (b) utilitarian environmental supports, (c) effective behaviour management plans, (d) valid social skill and social interpretation training and social interaction programmes, (e) proven academic support systems, (f) strong parent- and family-involvement programmes, (g) coordinated community support mechanisms, and (h) ongoing evaluation of essential programme components and student outcomes and progress. A justification for the programme and a comparison of the proposed programme with existing models is included in the discussion.

The democratic deficit and school-based management in Australia

M. Kimber and L. C. Ehrich

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 49, 2011, p. 179-199

The paper seeks to apply the theory of the democratic deficit to school-based management with an emphasis on Australia. This theory was developed to examine managerial restructuring of the Australian Public Service in the 1990s. Given similarities between the use of managerial practices in the public service and government schools, the authors draw on recent literature about school-based management in Australia and apply the democratic deficit theory to it. This paper is conceptual in focus. The authors analyse literature in terms of the three components of the democratic deficit - i.e. the weakening of accountability, the denial of the roles and values of public employees, and the emergence of a 'hollow state' - and in relation to the application of this theory to the Australian Public Service. A trend towards the three components of the democratic deficit is evident in Australia although, to date, its emergence has not been as extensive as in the UK. The authors argue that the democratic principles on which public schooling in Australia was founded are being eroded by managerial and market practices. These findings provide policy makers and practitioners with another way of examining managerial and market understandings of school-based management and its impact on teachers and on students. It offers suggestions to reorient practices away from those that are exclusively managerial-based towards those that are public-sector based.

Education in small states: policies and priorities

M. Crossley, M. Bray and S. Packer

London: Commonwealth Secretariat, 2011

This publication argues for work by the Commonwealth and others on the particular and distinct challenges of education in small states. There is a need to examine the impact of changing global contexts, to document the changing nature and significance of recent and contemporary education policy priorities, and to advance the case for new and strengthened initiatives for education in small states. The study will be of direct interest to a wide range of stakeholders involved in educational and social development in small states, to policy-makers, administrators, researchers, students, comparative educationalists, international agency personnel and practitioners at all levels in small states, throughout the Commonwealth and beyond.

Fit for purpose? Western Australian insights into the efficacy of principal preparation

S. Clarke, H. Wildy and I. Styles

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 49, 2011, p. 166-178

This paper aims to highlight what principals consider to be their most severe challenges in the first three years of appointment and the extent to which they believe they were adequately prepared to meet these challenges. The paper reports on the initial Western Australian findings of a survey developed for Phase Three of the International Study of Principal Preparation (ISPP). The survey was designed as a common instrument across international contexts to investigate those aspects of principals' work perceived to be most challenging in the early years in the position and the extent to which principals believe they were prepared for these challenges. The survey was administered to 45 novice principals in Western Australia. The preliminary results of the survey have yielded some insights that draw attention to what principals regard as their main challenges and the extent to which they felt prepared to deal with them. The sample size is a little small for some of the analyses and results need to be treated with caution. The insights derived from responses to the survey have clear implications for the efficacy of role preparation and development. The paper helps to clarify those aspects of the work of novice primary principals which they find most problematic relative to other aspects, and the extent to which they felt prepared to deal with them.

From Bologna to Lisbon: the political uses of the Lisbon 'script' in European higher education policy

G. Capano and S. Piattoni

Journal of European Public Policy, vol.18, 2011, p. 584-606

This article aims to explore the transformation of EU higher education policy from mere co-ordination of educational curricula by national governments to the embodiment of the Lisbon Agenda's 'governance architecture', including its impact on national policies, institutions and actors. It begins by sketching the basic traits of EU higher education policy from the Bologna Agreement to the Lisbon Strategy. It next shows how the structural and dynamic forces of the Lisbon Strategy's governance architecture operate as a 'script' that national actors follow and interpret according to their own cultural and institutional traditions. Case studies of the implementation of the Lisbon Strategy in England, the Netherlands, Germany and Italy show how national characteristics and dynamics have produced four different national 'scripts', each characterised by specific institutional and policy constraints.

From special to inclusive education in Macau (SAR)

C. Forlin

International Journal of Inclusive Education, vol. 15, 2011, p. 433-443

The education of learners with special education needs (SEN) in Macau (SAR), China, has gradually transitioned over the past 30 years from a completely segregated approach to a more inclusive one. Following a review of the development of special education and the transition towards inclusion in Macau, consideration is given to the enactment of inclusive education in mainstream schools. Interviews with the leaders in a primary and secondary mainstream government school in Macau outline the ways in which learners with SEN are included in mainstream schools. The discussion focuses on a range of issues regarding the inclusion movement in Macau, including management, schooling and the inclusive model that is applied.

Greek education policy and the challenge of migration: an 'intercultural' view of assimilation

R. Gropasa and A. Triandafyllidoua

Race Ethnicity and Education, vol. 14, 2011, p. 399-419

This article explores the policy responses and conceptual underpinnings of intercultural education in Greece. In the past two decades, and as a result of migration, Greece has seen its demography significantly and irreversibly altered in social, cultural, economic, ethnic, racial, and religious terms. Faced with an increasingly diverse student population, novel education policies are required. This article addresses the following questions. How has intercultural education been designed in Greece in response to growing immigration? What are the main objectives of Greek educational policy as regards contemporary Greek society overall and the immigrant population in particular? Are these changing, and if so in what direction? Is intercultural education perceived differently on the part of the various stakeholders? Based on empirical research the authors highlight the connection between education policy approaches, practices and national identity discourses in order to explore the conceptual confusion of intercultural vs multicultural education approaches and the importance of the national context. They also raise a number of issues that they consider merit further examination both in policy and research terms in order to expand and enrich intercultural education in Greece.

Inclusive education and the No Child Left Behind Act: resisting entrenchment

K. M. Hulgin and B. M. Drakeb

International Journal of Inclusive Education, vol. 15, 2011, p. 389-404

This article examines inclusive education in view of the current US policy climate. The No Child Left Behind Act provides the opportunity to examine dominant social forces and the underlying theories of mechanism and positivism that run counter to a constructivist approach to inclusive education. The incompatibility of these theories is explored in terms of four factors that influence efforts to implement change: images of teaching and learning, images of organisation, approaches to policy and organisational characteristics. This framework provides a means of clarifying and working to restore the movement towards inclusive education within local schools and communities.

The International Baccalaureate and 'growth scepticism': a 'social limits' framework

T. Bunnella

International Studies in Sociology of Education, vol. 21, 2011, p. 161-176

The number of schools offering the programmes of the International Baccalaureate (IB) hit 3000 in July 2010. Since 2004 the IB has aimed for further growth within a 'wider access' and 'greater impact' paradigm. A further 7000 schools are expected to be involved by 2020. However, there is now considerable concern about growth, especially within the 'international school movement' who see it as compromising quality. This recent phenomenon can be termed 'growth scepticism' in the same way economic growth is now questioned as desirable. This paper charts this development and argues there is room for a much wider framework of analysis, viewing the global growth of the IB within a social and moral lens.

'Perform, measure accurately, optimise': on the constitution of (evidence-based) education policy

M. Decuypere, M. Simons and J. Masschelein

International Studies in Sociology of Education, vol. 21, 2011, p. 115-135

This article takes its point of departure in the current tendency of education policy to become more and more evidence based. The use of statistics and numbers seems to be a prerequisite for developing a policy that is both efficient and effective. The kind of knowledge thus produced is regarded as factual and scientific. This article tries to get a grasp on value-added modelling, a commonly used method supposed to produce such knowledge. Drawing on some conceptual underpinnings of actor-network theory, the article argues that such factual information often takes the form of matters of educational performance that are shaped and produced by means of calculative and inscription devices. However, the adagio that measures of performances should guide education policy is only one, albeit strong, point of view. Taking not only performances but also public issues into account could lead to what could be called a more 'concern-oriented' policy.

The role of higher education institutions in building regional innovation systems

M.C.J. Caniëls and H. Van den Bosch

Papers in Regional Science, vol.90, 2011, p. 271-286

The literature on the role of higher education institutions in regional development is quite extensive, but their part in building the regional innovation system has been under-researched. This article reviews the limited theoretical and empirical literature on the role of universities in fuelling the regional innovation system, namely to what extent and in what ways they can facilitate interorganisational learning in the area. It summarises what has been learned from the modest number of studies that have been conducted and offers suggestions for further research.

Salamanca Statement and IDEA 2004: possibilities of practice for inclusive education

P. F. Hunta

International Journal of Inclusive Education, vol. 15, 2011, p. 461-476

This article offers a comparative analysis of the Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action, and the US Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, within a critically discursive framework. The author creates the notion of possibilities of practice, and analyses each policy document as to how these are created, by means of interdiscursive, intertextual and recontextual analyses. In turn, the author demonstrates how each policy differs in the textual dimensions that represent themes of social representation/construction, such as: how pupils are constructed; how schooling is constructed; how inclusion/exclusion is constructed; how teacher preparation is constructed; and how resource allocation is constructed (or constricted). Finally, the author discusses the policy that best allows for possibilities of practice that promote the inclusion of ALL children.

'Some people aren't cut out for It': the role of personality factors in the careers of teachers of students with EBD

B. Prather-Jones

Remedial and Special Education, vol. 32, 2011, p. 192-205

This qualitative study explores reasons that experienced teachers of students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders give for remaining in their field. Previous research, usually conducted among the wider population of special education teachers, has focused on the relationship of employment and demographic factors to attrition and has primarily relied on quantitative surveys. The researcher sought to expand that body of work through the use of in-depth interviews with teachers who have continued teaching students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders for more than 6 years. In discussing career decisions, these teachers consistently pointed to the importance of personal characteristics, such as the fit between their personality and the demands of the job. These findings point to the importance of recruiting appropriate candidates for this field and helping pre- and in-service teachers develop the personal skills necessary to cope with the unique demands of the job.

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