R.E. Cimera and others
Autism, vol. 16, 2012, p. 87-94
In the United States, approximately 7,000 facility-based programmes (e.g. sheltered workshops) serve 542,127 adults with mental, physical and emotional disabilities. These programmes offer skill training, special certificate sub-minimum wage work, pre-vocational services, group work placements and recreation and leisure activities. The underlying premise of sheltered workshops is that disabled jobseekers need certain skills prior to becoming competitively employed within the community. However, it is unclear whether sheltered workshops actually provide disabled jobseekers with beneficial skills. This study compared the outcomes of 215 adults with autism who participated in sheltered workshops prior to applying for vocational rehabilitation services with 215 who did not. Results showed that there were no differences in rates of employment between these two groups. However, individuals who participated in sheltered workshops earned significantly less ($129.36 versus $191.42 per week) and cost significantly more to serve ($6,065.08 versus $2,440.60), than their non-sheltered workshop peers.
V.A. Crooks and others
Health and Social Care in the Community, vol. 20,2012, p. 172-180
The Compassionate Care Benefit (CCB) was implemented by the Canadian federal government in 2004. The programme provides limited income support and job security for eligible workers who take temporary leave from regular employment to care for a dying person. This article presents findings from interviews with 57 Canadians who had cared for a dying family member to examine their ideal expectations of the Compassionate Care Benefit. The study found a gap between family caregivers' ideal expectations of the scheme and their experienced realities. There was a disjuncture between the actual intent of the CCB and caregivers' desire for a broad social support programme.
Journal of European Social Policy, vol. 22, 2012, p. 3-16
The post-war welfare state was based on the logic of social citizenship. All citizens were entitled to equal access to national programmes and benefits regardless of their regional affiliations. However, the introduction of active inclusion policies radically transformed this approach. Social policies are now based on a targeted, individualised approach and interventions take people's personal circumstances into account. Reforms that tailor interventions to meet personal circumstances reintroduce local discretion in implementation. This change is demonstrated through eight case studies of the local administration of minimum income programmes in France and Germany.
Canadian Review of Sociology, vol.49, 2012, p. 26-46
This paper traces how the reform of social assistance in Ontario, especially the post-1990s enforcement of lone mothers' employability via welfare-to-work programmes, parallels shifts in dominant moral codes of mothering, from 'mother carer' to 'mother worker'. It is argued that the introduction of welfare-to-work programmes in Ontario did not occur in a neo-liberal vacuum but also involved the transfer of ideas about moral mothering circulating outside of policy into policy.
D. Etherington and J. Ingold
Journal of European Social Policy, vol. 22, 2012, p. 30-44
This article presents a comparative study of activation programmes for people on disability and long-term sickness benefits in the UK and Denmark. The number of people claiming such benefits has risen significantly in recent years. In response both Denmark and the UK have integrated employability programmes for disabled people into their activation policies. Since 2001 Denmark has pursued an increasingly work first strategy and has tightened benefit conditionality. At the same time it has retained comprehensive social benefits and a key role for the social partners (employers and trade unions) in its labour market policies and has maintained substantial investments in subsidised employment. In contrast the UK has not paid sufficient attention to income security, has not invested sufficiently in the New Deals or JobCentre Plus and has failed to engage local employers or trade unions in its efforts to include disabled people in the labour market.