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Welfare Reform on the Web - January 2001: Education - overseas

CENTRALIZATION, DECENTRALIZATION, RECENTRALIZATION: EDUCATION REFORM IN CHINA

J. N. Hawkins

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 38, 2000, p. 442-454

Explores the role of decentralisation in China's struggle to align the education system with the emerging marketisation of the economy, while at the same time requiring regional and local governments to assume responsibility for a greater share of educational expenditure. However fear of losing control of the education system outweighs the benefits of local leadership, flexibility and innovativeness, and significant recentralisation has begun.

COLONIAL MODELS AND THE EVOLUTION OF EDUCATION SYSTEMS: CENTRALISATION AND DECENTRALISATION IN HONG KONG AND MACAU

K. - C. Tung and M. Bray

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 38, 2000, p. 468-485

Paper charts the emergence and development of education systems in Hong Kong and Macau in the twentieth century. Hong Kong constructed a highly centralised system, which at the end of the century moved towards decentralisation. In Macau, government neglect led to an uncoordinated collection of imported systems. At the end of the century the Macau government tried to unify the sector, but faced major challenges and limitations.

DEREGULATION AND DECENTRALIZATION OF EDUCATION IN JAPAN

H. Muta

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 38, 2000, p. 454-467

In the late nineteenth century Japan centralised its institutions, including education, in order to catch up with Western industrialised nations. However in the late twentieth century, in order to maintain its competitive edge as a world leader in the economic globalisation process , its national leadership instituted a series of reforms to deregulate and decentralise the education system. The objective was to provide sufficient flexibility and local control of the school level to stimulate creativity, individual initiative and entrepreneurship among the new generation of students.

EDUCATION POLICY AND PRACTICE REGARDING MORE ABLE STUDENTS IN SPAIN

C. Genovard Roselló et al

Gifted Education International, vol. 14, 2000, p 264-276.

Begins by pointing out the legal void in Spain with respect to the identification and education of more able students. Despite the lack of support and resources available in the field of higher abilities, some universities have carried out research into the identification and characteristics of more able students. Finally, presents the programme of training to assist teachers in handling gifted students developed at the University of Murcia.

THE POLITICS OF EDUCATIONAL DECENTRALIZATION IN MEXICO

C. Ornelas

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 38, 2000, p. 426-441

In the Mexican model of decentralisation, the federal government retains control of the national curriculum, of monitoring and evaluation of the education system, and of the channeling of extra resources to poor states. The states assume responsibility for labour relations, teacher training, and school management. The central government was motivated to decentralise because the old system was notoriously rigid, conflict laden, dominated by the National Teachers' Union and unable to improve standards.

THREE DECENTRALIZATION STRATEGIES IN TWO DECADES: CHILE 1981-2000

E. Schiefelbein and P. Schiefelbein

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 38, 2000, p.412-425

In the 1980s an educational voucher system was introduced by the military regime that encouraged parental choice of school. The second reform which began in 1990 and was embedded in the transition to democratic government focused on improving the working conditions of teachers. The third strategy launched in 1994 was concerned with improving instructional material and the teaching process.

WHEN PROGRESSIVENESS LEADS TO BACKWARDNESS

Shlaes

Financial Times, Oct. 24th 2000, p. 27

The abandonment of traditional education in the US in favour of a child-centred focus on creativity has led to a generation of illiterate and innumerate workers locked into low-wage jobs.

GERMAN MINISTER GIVES ACADEMICS A LESSON IN REFORM

T. Buck

Financial Times, Oct 26th 2000, p. 8

Proposed reforms of the German higher education system include reductions in the basic salaries of university teachers, introduction of performance related pay, and establishment of junior professorships to encourage young academics.

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