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Welfare Reform on the Web - January 2001: Welfare state - overseas

FACES OF INEQUALITY: GENDER, CLASS AND PATTERNS OF INEQUALITIES IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF WELFARE STATES

W. Korpi

Social Politics, vol. 7, 2000, p. 127-191

Paper combines gender and class in an analysis of patterns of inequalities in different types of welfare states. The development of gendered agency inequality with respect to democratic politics, tertiary education and labour force participation is analyzed in 18 OECD countries. Class inequality is described in terms of disposable household income. The paper develops a new typology of welfare states based on institutional structures of relevance for gender inequality as well as class inequality.

DIVERSITY AND COMPLEXITY IN LOCAL FORMS OF URBAN ANTI-POVERTY STRATEGIES IN EUROPE

M. Oberti

International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, vol. 24, 2000, p. 536-553

Presents a comparative analysis of income support measures for disadvantaged populations at local level, emphasizing the diversity and complexity of the processes at work and of local configurations. Explores the relationships between public institutions, the independent sector (the church, voluntary organisations) and informal support networks (the family, friends and the local community). The challenge of social integration is driving all countries towards greater intervention, but it is also obliging them to establish new connections and new balances between bureaucratic forms of public action and more flexible, informal forms of regulation of the social bond.

POST-WELFARE STATE GOVERNANCE: TOWARDS A CODE OF SOCIAL AND FAMILY RESPONSIBILITY

W. Larner

Social Politics, vol. 7, 2000, p. 244-265

Towards a Code of Social and Family Responsibility is a public discussion document sent by the New Zealand Government to all households in early 1998. It represents an explicit attempt to generate a post-welfare state consensus on social issues. It is premised on the notion that "community" and "family" can replace "society" as the basis for collective well - being. It also promotes active citizenship, in which participation in paid work is the key to social inclusion for both men and women. At the same time it threatens direct monitoring of those individuals who cannot or will not comply with this formulation.

PRODUCTIVIST WELFARE CAPITALISM: SOCIAL POLICY IN EAST ASIA

I. Holliday

Political Studies, vol. 48, 2000, p. 706-723

A productivist world of welfare capitalism needs to be added to Epsing-Andersen's conservative, liberal and social democratic worlds. Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan can all be placed in that world. In the productivist world, welfare provision is subordinate to economic policy; social rights are minimal with extensions linked to productive activity; the position of productive elements of society is reinforced; and state-market-family relationships are directed towards growth. The thrust of the analysis is that the continuing vulnerability of all these states to the forces economic globalisation makes it unlikely they will move beyond productivist welfare capitalism in the forseeable future.

PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR INSTITUTIONALISED SOLIDARITY: A COMPARISON BETWEEN EUROPEAN WELFARE STATES

J. Gelissen

International Journal of Social Welfare, vol. 9, 2000, p. 285-300

Despite the erosion of social provision and efforts to introduce the discipline of the market into social security, citizens continue to support state welfare. This suggests that future attempts at retrenchment may meet with substantial opposition from the public.

THE SWEDISH WELFARE STATE AND THE EMERGENCE OF FEMALE WELFARE STATE OCCUPATIONS

L. Evertsson

Gender, Work and Organization, vol. 7, 2000, p. 230-241

Paper discusses how the Swedish welfare state's development and form have influenced the development of female-dominated health and care occupations. The welfare state's expansion opened up new areas of activity and created a stable labour market for the health and care sector, which provided good conditions for union-related and professional organising. However, the state's interests in professional matters have often been in conflict with those of the professions themselves, regarding, for example, education and certification. Concludes that the Swedish Welfare state has acted as both an engine and a break regarding professional development and status.

VALUING UNPAID WORK IN THE THIRD SECTOR: THE CASE OF COMMUNITY RESOURCE CENTRES

S. Neysmith and M. Reitsma-Street

Canadian Public Policy, vol. 26, 2000, p. 331-346

Paper draws on quantitative and qualitative data from five centres to illustrate and analyse the complex debates on two approaches to valuing volunteering. The first approach is the monetary valuation of volunteer time in the third sector, an approach that appeals to the state and the economy. The second approach is the experiential valuation of volunteering embedded in service organisations of the third sector and in the volunteers themselves. Argues that the differences between the perspectives of volunteers, funders, and programme planners arise from their differing social locations. Furthermore, the interests of the state, the organizations that use volunteers, and individual citizens who volunteer have conflicts which are most costly to the latter. Finally suggests that the policy debates about volunteers can be sharpened by casting them within the framework of unpaid work and citizenship.