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Welfare Reform on the Web (February 2001): Social Security - Overseas

EARNINGS SUPPLEMENTATION AS A MEANS TO REINTEGRATE THE UNEMPLOYED

J. Greenwood

Canadian Public Policy, vol.26, 2000, Supplement, p.236-256

Paper presents evidence from two randomised experiments testing the use of financial incentives to encourage labour market participation. The Self-Sufficiency Project shows that supplementary earnings from low-paying full-time jobs can increase employment among single parents who are long-term welfare recipients, can raise their earnings and incomes, and may entail little net increase in government transfers net of taxes. In the Earnings Supplement Project, however, the offer to partially compensate unemployment insurance recipients who returned to work quickly and experienced earnings losses had no impact on the behaviour of repeat users of UI and only a small and short-lived impact with displaced workers.

FROM FAMILY WAGE TO MARRIAGE SUBSIDY AND CHILD BENEFITS: CONTROVERSY AND CONSENSUS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF FAMILY SUPPORT

I. Montanari

Journal of European Social Policy, vol.10, 2000, p.307-333

Article follows the development of the marriage subsidy in 18 OECD countries from 1950 to 1990 and compares it with the development of child benefits. Since the 1970s the countries studied have differed in their approach to the marriage subsidy. Reinforcement of the marriage subsidy is taken by the author to indicate political support for the single bread-winner family, while its gradual decrease shows political preference for the encouragement of dual earner families.

INTEGRATING THE UNEMPLOYED THROUGH CUSTOMIZED TRAINING

S. Torjman

Canadian Public Policy, vol.26, 2000, Supplement p.221-233

Paper explores the concept of customized training, the key concerns to which it gives rise and its potential for broader application. Under customized training, a designated organisation works with local employers to identify the training needs for certain targeted jobs. The designated organisation then provides short-term intensive training that prepares individuals for the target jobs. The partner companies, in turn, use the designated organisation as a hiring "window" because it already has trained prospective workers. Projects which have employed this approach in Canada have achieved considerable success in terms of placing social assistance recipients into paid work that lasts more than six months.

'OUR VIEW HAS NOT CHANGED': THE UK'S RESPONSE TO THE PROPOSAL TO EXTEND THE CO-ORDINATION OF SOCIAL SECURITY TO THIRD COUNTRY NATIONALS

S. Roberts

European Journal of Social Security, vol.2, 2000, p.189-204

Paper examines the response of the UK to the European Commission's proposal to extend Regulation (EEC) 1408/71 to include non-EU nationals. There is a fundamental difference in approach between the UK government and the European Commission about the treatment of third country nationals who are legally resident within member states. It is the Commission's objective to secure social rights for third country nationals who are legally resident within the Community on an equal footing with Community citizens. The UK's approach, in contrast, can be characterised as communitarian. Rights are derived from membership of the national community, national boundaries have ethical significance and alienage is a permissible criterion for judging claims for welfare.

PROTECTING THE LONG-TERM UNEMPLOYED: THE IMPACT OF TARGETING POLICIES IN SPAIN

R. Gutiérrez and A.M. Guillén

European Societies, vol.2, 2000, p.195-216

In the late 1970s the Spanish labour market was heavily regulated and there was reliance on passive protection for the unemployed. Since then Spain has attempted to make its labour market more flexible while developing active labour market measures and targeted programmes for the long term unemployed. However the unemployment level has not decreased. Article aims to explain the policy shift from a neo-institutional perspective.