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Welfare Reform on the Web (September 2001): Welfare State - Overseas

COMPARING WELFARE STATES

A Cochrane, J Clarke and S Gewirtz (eds.)

London: Sage Publications, 2001.

This book provides a critical introduction to British and comparative social policy. It looks at the construction of the British Welfare state 1945-1975 and its remaking in the 1980's and 1990's. Using a series of comparative case studies taken from the US, Germany, Sweden and Ireland it looks at whether it is possible to identify moves that may be leading to a "cross-national or supranational welfare state, based on the structure of the European Union".

GLOBALIZATION AND EUROPEAN WELFARE STATES: CHALLENGES AND CHANGE

R Sykes, B Palier and P Prior (eds)

Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2001.

This book looks at the impact of globalization upon the welfare state. It reviews the key theoretical and conceptual debates which already exist on globalization and the welfare state. It discusses the role of international organisations such as the World Bank and the European Union. It considers all the major types of European national welfare systems:

  • Bismarkian;
  • Southern, Central and Eastern European;
  • Nordic and Liberal.
A chapter is presented on each type, outlining welfare policy changes in the various European countries and the role of globalization in such changes.

INSTITUTIONALISING THE SWISS WELFARE STATE

K Armingeon

West European Politics, vol.24, 2001, p.145-168.

The Swiss welfare state over the past 50 years has moved towards the Western European model, while retaining strong liberal traits. A full convergence has been delayed by various socio-economic, political and institutional factors. The change is attributable to the gradual reform of existing schemes, to increasing demands on state welfare due to demographic and economic developments and to the inability of institutions to prevent convergence.

INTERNATIONAL SOCIAL POLICY: WELFARE REGIMES IN THE DEVELOPED WORLD

P Alcock and G Craig (eds)

Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2001.

This book is divided into chapters that look at the historical and political developments in twelve countries. It explores the main features of current welfare services and expenditures as well as looking towards the future developments in each country. Its structure allows for a comparative study of social policy in Europe, North America, Australasia and the Far East. It looks specifically at the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, United Kingdom, Sweden, Germany, Italy, Russia, South Africa and Hong Ko

NEW AGENDAS FOR SOCIAL POLICY AND CRIMINOLOGY: GLOBALIZATION, URBANISM AND THE EMERGING POST-SOCIAL SECURITY STATE

T Fitzpatrick

Social Policy and Administration, vol.35, 2001, p.212-229.

The aim of this article is to bring together diverse theories seen in recent literature on criminalization and regulation, so they can be discussed in conjunction with one another. It discusses:

  • the ideas of Young and the Exclusive Society;
  • Garland and State Sovereignty;
  • the three schools of globalization;
  • Bowman and the Post-Social Security State;
  • the idea of taxonomy of post-social geographies.
Having drawn all these ideas together, it leaves the area open to debate and further theorization and research.

THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF SOCIAL INEQUALITIES: CONSEQUENCES FOR HEALTH AND QUALITY OF LIFE

V Navarro

New York: Baywood Publishing Company Inc., 2001.

This publication aims to analyse the reasons for increase seen in the last two decades of the 20th century in inequality and its consequences for the well-being of populations.

The book is split into distinct parts:

  • Part I gives a historical review (1965-1997) of studies on class, health and quality of life.
  • Part II looks at the causes of the growth in inequalities and their impact on health and quality of life.
  • Part III contains a critique of international agencies: WHO, PAHO, World Bank, IMF, UNICEF and UNDP.
  • Part IV looks at neoliberalism and social and health policy.
  • Part V describes the debate on pathways of social inequalities and health.
  • Part VI Analyses of proposed solutions focusing on the importance of the political context.

REFORMING HEALTH AND SOCIAL SERVICES IN POLAND: AN OVERVIEW

K Piotrowska-Marczak and K Kietlinska.

Public Management Review, vol.3, 2001, p.281-283.

Reforms of the health and social services in Poland aim at enabling them to adapt to the demands of the new market economy. Changes introduced mainly relate to:

  • restricting central government funding;
  • introduction of a health insurance scheme;
  • partial privatization of service providers;
  • developing a cadre of people to manage the new institutions.

RETHINKING THE WELFARE REGIME APPROACH: THE CASE OF BANGLADESH

P R Davis

Global Social Policy, vol.1, 2001, p.79-107.

Article examines the potential value added by using a "welfare regime approach" to explore welfare provision in low income countries. In the Bangladesh context, the notion of a welfare regime provides a useful, yet problematic, conceptual apparatus for exploring the relationship between a welfare mix and its particular welfare, stratification and political mobilisation outcomes. Article draws attention to the limited focus of the conventional approach on the central state-market nexus, leading to a lack of emphasis on family, kinship, community, local government and "civil society" forms of welfare as well as those mediated by bilateral and global actors. It also draws attention to the wider range of relevant public welfare strategies that can be seen as functionally equivalent to social security in industrialised countries.

RISK AND CITIZENSHIP: KEY ISSUES IN WELFARE

R Edwards and J Glover (eds.)

London: Routledge, 2001.

This book contains a collection of essays that cover a wide range of risk, citizenship and welfare issues. It looks at aspects of social insecurity and protection, contracts and the scope of social policy in the context of family, financial services and the impact of technology. It also examines the ideas about managing the risk of unemployment, competing approaches to risk assessment in community care, social capital and waves of innovation in the risk society.

SOCIAL CAPITAL IN THE SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC WELFARE STATE

B Rothstein

Politics and Society, vol.29, 2001, p.207-241.

Investigates why the universal Swedish Welfare state has not destroyed trust and social capital. Suggests that one reason may be the way in which the Swedish welfare state system has been institutionalised. It is based on a system of social insurance that supplies all citizens with basic resources without the stigma associated with means-testing. This means that people receiving support from the government cannot be portrayed as "the others". Secondly, universal programmes, unlike means-tested ones, are less likely to create suspicions that people are cheating the system.

THE SPATIAL STRATEGY OF EQUALITY AND THE SPATIAL DIVISION OF WELFARE

M Powell and G Boyne

Social Policy and Administration, vol.35, 2001, p.181-194.

Article argues that little is known about "either the geographical objectives or the spatial outputs of the welfare state". It focuses on:

  • the spatial strategy of equality;
  • national versus local services;
  • the Robinson welfare state and mapping inequality;
  • the spatial division of the welfare.