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Welfare Reform on the Web (May 2002): Education - Overseas

CHALLENGING THE TRADITIONAL ORGANIZATION OF JAPANESE UNVERSITIES

Y. Ogawa

Higher Education, vol.43, 2002, p. 85-108

Paper looks at how the Japanese have changed the organisational structure of research universities over the last ten years. It examines how the new structure makes universities more flexible and more receptive to further reforms. It discusses how the loosely coupled structure of Japanese universities still requires the creation and standardisation of university culture.

THE CURRICULUM REFORMS OF THE 1990s: WHAT HAS CHANGED?

A. Yoshida

Higher Education, vol. 43 2002, p. 43-63

Article examines higher education changes which took place in Japan in 1991. The revision of the standards for establishing universities in 1991 abolished the distinction between general education and specialized subjects. Article goes on to discuss the results of these changes which include:

  • the establishment of university-wide general education committees;
  • a reduction in the number of general education credits necessary for graduation;
  • the decline of general education's solid foundation in the university.

DEVELOPMENTS IN SCHOOL-BASED MANAGEMENT: THE SPECIFIC CASE OF QUEENSLAND, AUSTRALIA

B. Lingard, D. Hayes and M. Mills

Journal of Educational Administration; vol. 40, 2002, p. 6-30

Paper provides a critical history of moves from the 1980s onwards in Queensland education towards school-based management. Argues that school-based management has no stipulative meaning, but is rather a concept that is restated over time in changing political contexts, while also being contested.

ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS IN EDUCATION POLICY MAKING: A SIMPLIFIED FRAMEWORK

Y. C. Cheng, K. H. Ng, and M. M. C. Mok

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 16, 2002, p. 18-39

Presents a simplified framework for analysing education policy from an economic perspective. The framework is made up of three main parts:

  • the demand for and supply of education;
  • the education system structure;
  • the economic effects and consequences of education.

ENTRANCE EXAMINATIONS AND REMEDIAL EDUCATION IN JAPANESE HIGHER EDUCATION

R. Mori

Higher Education, vol. 43, 2002, p. 27-42

This article examines the function of entrance examinations at private institutions and outlines the newly established and growing position of remedial education in higher education.

FINANCE REFORM IN JAPANESE HIGHER EDUCATION

A. Asonuma

Higher Education, vol. 43, no. 1, 2002, p. 109-126

Paper discusses how recent reforms have been changing the structure and nature of national university finance. Recent funding reforms have been targeted mainly at the national universities in Japan. However Japan's higher education system is characterised by its large private higher education sector. The private universities compete with national universities for students and government funding. Funding of national universities has in the pastconsisted of high central government contributions and low student and private industry contributions. The paradigm is now shifting towards higher contributions from students and industry, more emphasis on institutional autonomy, and an increase in non-institutional funding from government. There is now a need to reconsider how government subsidies are allocated between national and private universities.

THE FUTURE OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN JAPAN: CHANGING THE LEGAL STATUS OF NATIONAL UNIVERSITITIES

M. Murasawa

Higher Education, vol. 43, no. 1. 2002, p. 141-155

Article examines the debate started by the Japanese government with regard to introducing an Independent Administrative Institution system for national universities. The impact of the changes is currently unclear. Although Japan's universities would enjoy greater autonomy they would also face financial problems. The article looks at how some national universities have started to reform themselves radically in preparation for the changes that will inevitably occur.

HIGHER EDUCATION REFORM IN PERSPECTIVE: THE JAPANESE EXPERIENCE

A. Itoh

Higher Education, vol. 43, 2002, p.7-25

Paper looks at the reform of Japanese higher education from a historical perspective since the end of World War II.

THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN JAPAN IN THE 1990S: A RECONSIDERATION

M. Horie

Higher Education, vol. 43, January 2002, p. 65-84

Focusing on the internationalization of education, this article looks at how government initiatives, intended to increase the number of international students, also enabled drastic changes in financial and human resource allocation at both national and institutional levels. This article focuses on the changes seen since 1995 from two main view points:

  • the improved quality and efficiency of university education and
  • the increased openness to students from any background.

THE QUALITY ASSURANCE SYSTEM AND MARKET FORCES IN JAPANESE HIGHER EDUCATION

A. Yonezawa

Higher Education, vol. 43, no. 1, 2002, p. 127-139

Article first focuses on the function and impact of self-monitoring and self-evaluation systems as processes oriented towards decentralization and internal reflection. Then changing market forces in higher education in an age of rapid economic globalization are discussed. Thirdly, the possibility of external evaluation by the National Institution for Academic Degrees as a mechanism for accountability is examined. Finally, the relationship between changes in the quality assurance system and changes in market forces is addressed.

STRATEGIC PLANNING AND EDUCATION: THE CASE OF CYPRUS

A.Tsiakkiros and P. Pashiardis

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 16, 2002, p. 6-17

Article explores whether strategic planning, which originated in business management, can be successfully applied to education, using Cyprus as a test case. Includes a brief history of the Cyprus Education System (CES). A model strategic plan for the CES is proposed.

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