L Schmidt and others
Social Problems, vol.49, 2002, p.221-241
Study found that alcohol and drug dependence were not strong predictors of whether or not aid recipients leave welfare for a job, even though explanations focused on work capacity and human capital currently prevail in the debate over welfare reform. Substance dependence was found to be more strongly associated with leaving welfare due to family disruptions or administrative sanctions. Family and administrative reasons for leaving welfare also produce more temporary exits, and people with addictions are more likely to keep returning to welfare over time.
European Industrial Relations Review, no. 341, 2002, p.23-24
The Spanish government has forced through by Decree the third labour market reform in five years. The latest measures focus on reducing the costs of employment and tightening the conditions surrounding eligibility for unemployment benefits. Trade unions have reacted with hostility to what they perceive to be an unacceptable infringement of workers' rights.
S H Bell and L L Orr
Labour Economics, vol. 9, 2002, p.279-301
Places on US government employment and training programmes are allocated through screening of applicants on the basis of management guidelines by project staff. There may be a tendency to select (cream off) the most promising applicants who would probably do well independently in the labour market. Paper explores the role of creaming in the operation of seven welfare-to-work training programmes. Concludes that these programmes did indeed "cream" the most able applicants on both observable and unobservable characteristics.
H A Pollack and others
Social Service Review, vol. 76, 2002, p.256-274
Substance use by US welfare recipients forms a barrier to employability. Article uses nationally representative cross-sectional data and Michigan-specific panel data to summarise trends in substance use among welfare recipients. It also examines the prevalence of substance dependence as opposed to use among the welfare population. Although almost 20% of welfare recipients report recent illicit drug use, few satisfy the criteria for substance dependence. Article concludes by considering policy responses to substance use disorders following welfare reform.