S. Hodge and J. Howe
European Urban and Regional Studies, vol.6, 1999, p.178-184
Authors contend that while the goal of a single Europe embodied in the European Social Model will remain symbolically important, it will for practical purposes be distilled into a less ambitious project than that which motivated the founders of the EEC. The future of the ESM will probably rest in a modified version that will enable it to accommodate a diversity of social and economic needs among its member states. Unless political will and substantial monetary resources are found, a split will emerge between the wealthy, high-skill, high-social-welfare economies of the central and north western EU members and low-skill, low-welfare countries of the south and east.
Social Forces, vol.77, 1999, p.1119-1139
Study assesses the effects of social welfare policy extensiveness on poverty rates across 15 affluent industrialised nations from 1961 to 1991, using both absolute and relative measures of poverty. Results strongly support the view that social welfare programmes reduce poverty.