G. S. O'Neal and R. A. O'Neal
Community Development Journal, vol. 38, 2003, p. 120-129
Investigates agency participation in the planning phase of an Empowerment Zone in the USA. Empowerment Zones are areas of economic decline where grants and tax incentives operate. Describes the agencies' role, activities and motivation.
Public Finance, Mar. 28th - Apr. 3rd 2003, p. 24-25
Business Improvement Districts (BIDs) in the USA allow the private sector, at the behest of local government, to raise capital through approved extra taxation, to improve run-down urban areas. The UK government is interested in importing the scheme into the UK.
A. Stevens, A. M. Bur and L. Young
Community Development Journal, vol. 38, 2003, p. 84-95
Looks at the use of participation to combat social exclusion. Presents the findings of a project investigating participation in Spain, Italy, England and Ireland. Divides the aims of participation into four categories:
Relates these categories to policy developments and to different reasons for social exclusion. Concludes it is necessary to have greater clarity on the aims of participation and how it fights social exclusion.