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Welfare Reform on the Web (June 2003): Welfare State - Overseas

CIVIL SOCIETY RESPONSES TO POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGIES IN NICARAGUA

S. Bradshaw and B. Linneker

Progress in Development Studies, vol. 3, 2003, p.147-158

Examines Nicaragua's Poverty Reduction Strategies Papers (PRSP) process. Investigates civil society's response and the extent of its ability to influence the process. Follows the development of an alternative consultative process by the Civil Coordinator for Emergency and Reconstruction (CCER) leading to a poverty reduction document. Explains different opinions on how poverty should be measured, its causes and how it can be reduced. Concludes that the level of participation in the PRSP process is dependent on the country's government.

DETERMINANTS OF RELATIVE POVERTY IN ADVANCED CAPITALIST DEMOCRACIES

S. Moller and others

American Sociological Review, vol. 68, 2003, p. 22-51

Analyses the rate of pre-tax, pre-transfer poverty and the reduction of poverty achieved by taxes and transfers in 14 advanced capitalist democracies between 1967 and 1997. Finds poverty rates of the working population are mainly due to socio-economic factors, such as unemployment. A generous welfare state, left wing policies holding sway in the long term and fewer points at which to stop legislation all lead to poverty reduction.

FROM PAVEMENT TO PIAZZA: GRASSROOTS SOCIAL WORK TO COUNTERACT THE GLOBALIZATION OF MARGINALITY

E. Ferraro

Social Policy and Administration, vol. 37, 2003, p.198-217

Examines Italy's social policies and the work of M Borrelli. Argues that "consciousness-raising" and "community development" can result in social participation of marginalised individuals and groups. Finds a need for social policies to empower people and develop social citizenship. States that in Italy reforms are increasingly excluding and marginalising people. Looks at the role of non profit organisations in this environment.

GLOBAL SOCIAL POLICY: INGOs AND STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT: AN EMERGING RESEARCH AGENDA

G. Ramia

Global Social Policy, vol. 3, 2003, p. 79-101

Article analyses the impact of the strategic management practices of International Non-Government Organisations (INGOs) on the social welfare programmes they deliver. The recent emulation by INGOs of the strategic management methods of multinational companies has implications for the effectiveness of global social programme delivery. Global social policy analysts can benefit from the systematic assessment of management changes such as the increasing use of cross-sectoral strategic alliances between the public, non-profit and for-profit sectors, the growing importance of contractual tools, and the heightened sense in which organisational redesign shapes social objectives.

GROWTH, INEQUALITY AND SOCIAL PROTECTION

R. Arjona, M. Ladaique and M. Pearson

Canadian Public Policy, vol. 29 Supplement, 2003, p. S119-S139

Investigates the trade-off between equity and growth. Finds there is not enough evidence to show inequality is either good or bad for growth. Increased social protection expenditure is detrimental to growth. Active social spending programmes help growth, while passive programmes are bad for growth.

THE IMPORTANCE OF HOUSING COSTS IN CROSS-NATIONAL COMPARISONS OF WELFARE (STATE) OUTCOMES

V. M. Ritakallio

International Social Security Review, vol. 56, no.2, 2003, p.81-101

Article tests how the cross-national picture of poverty and inequality changes when the economic well-being of households is approached on the basis of disposable income after housing costs. The empirical analysis shows only modest variations in levels of poverty and inequality between Finland and Australia when housing costs are taken into account.

NEW ROUTES TO SOCIAL COHESION? CITIZENSHIP AND THE SOCIAL INVESTMENT STATE

J. Jenson and D. Saint-Martin

The Canadian Journal of Sociology, vol. 28, 2003, p. 77-99

Explores the idea that a welfare structure developed by policy communities concerned with social cohesion, often envisages a social investment state. Looks at the consequences of this structure for social policy at the beginning of the 21st century.

NGOs AND POVERTY REDUCTION IN A GLOBALIZING WORLD: PERSPECTIVES FROM GHANA

G. Porter

Progress in Development Studies, vol. 3, 2003, p.131-145

Looks at Non Government Organisations (NGOs) and their role in poverty reduction, focussing on Ghana. Examines how NGOs interact and the information flow between them. Investigates the extent to which the knowledge of local NGOs is used by NGO partners and funding NGOs to target poverty. Finds that local NGO programmes are overridden and their knowledge not utilised.

ON BEING A WELFARE CONSUMER IN A CONSUMER SOCIETY

J. Baldock

Social Policy and Society, vol. 2, 2003, p. 65-71

Examines the relationship between welfarism and consumerism. Looks at welfare users in a society where individuals see themselves as consumers and examines whether providers of welfare services can or should treat their users more like customers.

PAYING FOR 'WORLD CLASS' SERVICES: A BRITISH DILEMMA

P. Taylor-Gooby and C. Hastie

Journal of Social Policy, vol. 32, April 2003, p.271-288

Examines the public's willingness to pay for increased spending on public services. Despite surveys showing support for increased taxation for public service spending genuine willingness to pay is still questioned. Investigates whether support for increased public spending is undermined by a decline in trust in state institutions and citizens becoming more independent and reflexive. Finds targeted taxation for the NHS (National Health Service) is well supported, but hypothecated taxation for other services has little support.

RECOGNIZING GENDER, REDISTRIBUTING LABOUR

K. Olson

Social Politics, vol. 9, 2002, p. 380-410

Looks at theoretical welfare systems planned to de-gender labour and encourage men to be caregivers. Finds these systems do not take into account choice, which reflects the gender norms of society, and cultural influences. Argues that women's equal cultural agency is needed to tackle these issues.

THE REFORMULATION OF SOCIAL POLICY IN CHILE, 1973-2001: QUESTIONING A NEOLIBERAL MODEL

M. Taylor

Global Social Policy, vol. 3, 2003, p.21-44

Welfare state reform in Chile has involved the privatisation of the pension system with workers obligated to place 1.3% of their monthly salaries in an individual account with a private pension fund. Educational reform involved decentralisation with responsibility for running schools passed down to municipalities. Competition was encouraged by allocating state funding to schools based on the number of pupils they could attract. Private schools run by for-profit companies were also allowed to compete for state subsidised pupils, and can now also charge top-up fees. Healthcare reform also involved decentralisation and partial privatisation of the system, with workers obligated to purchase health insurance from either the state system or a private health fund. Article discusses the inefficiencies and inequities arising from these reforms.

REORGANIZING SOCIAL POLICIES THROUGH SOCIAL PARTNERSHIPS: GREECE IN EUROPEAN PERSPECTIVE

D. Kioukias

Social Policy and Administration, vol. 37, 2003, p. 121-132

Examines social policy formation and implementation in Western Europe. Finds a trend away from corporatist implementation towards "policy communities" and "policy networks". Explains Greece has a mixture of both systems of implementation. Looks at the implementation method in various areas, including health and agriculture. Concludes the trend towards "policy community" implementation is logical for Greece.

RESISTANCE AND CHANGE: NORDIC SOCIAL POLICY IN THE 1980s AND 1990s

A. Nordlund

European Societies, vol. 5, 2003, p. 69-90

Article examines previous research and official statistics on Nordic welfare state development in order to evaluate the proposition that countries with comprehensive welfare states have been, or soon will be, forced to dismantle or radically reform social programmes. Article finds weak support for these propositions. Goes on to explore Pierson's (2001) suggestion that cost containment and recalibration were salient dimensions of Nordic social policy in the 1980's and 1990s. Finds support for Pierson's arguments, but suggests that he did not give sufficient weight to service reorganisation.

SOCIAL CARE IN CRISIS: GENDER, DEMOGRAPHY, AND WELFARE STATE RESTRUCTURING IN JAPAN

I. Peng

Social Politics, vol. 9, 2002, p. 411-443

Traces welfare state restructuring and expansion in Japan since the 1990s. Finds that changes in gender relations and demography have led to change in social policy. Examines how a drop in the fertility rate, an ageing population, a rise in levels of female employment, and the mobilisation of women's groups have influenced the restructuring.

SOCIAL GOVERNANCE: CORPORATE GOVERNANCE IN INSTITUTIONS OF SOCIAL SECURITY, WELFARE AND HEALTHCARE

V. Verdeyen and B. van Buggenhout

International Social Security Review, vol. 56, no.2, 2003, p. 45-64

Article introduces the concept of social governance which it derives from the idea of corporate governance developed in company law. Social governance would result in the pursuit of a situation in which the various stakeholders in a social protection system control and complement each other through a series of checks and balances. It should enhance the social protection available to benefits claimants, patients and welfare clients. Goes on to give some existing Belgian examples of elements of social governance already in existence.

SOCIAL POLICY AND SOLIDARITY, ORPHANS OF THE NEW MODEL OF SOCIAL COHESION

D. White

The Canadian Journal of Sociology, vol. 28, 2003, p. 51-76

Examines the link between social policy, social cohesion and social citizenship in Canada since the 1980s. In the 1980s there was a retrenchment of the welfare state. Finds that since the mid 1990s, with the government's Policy Research Initiative (PRI) and the government's increased social spending, there has been new grounds for social cohesion and a new sense of citizenship.

SOCIAL POLICY IN GREECE: RHETORIC VERSUS REFORM

D. Venieris

Social Policy and Administration, vol. 37, 2003, p. 133-147

Reviews the major social policy developments in Greece since the 1980s, focussing on social security, health and employment policies. Argues that the concept of social policy has been distorted, being based on short -term political expediency. Finds there is strong resistance to progressive change during a period of increasing pressure for welfare reform.

THE VOLUNTARY SECTOR IN A SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC WELFARE STATE - THE CASE OF SWEDEN

T. Lundstrom and L. Svedberg

Journal of Social Policy, vol. 32, April 2003, p.217-238

Compares some aspects of the Swedish voluntary sector with that of other countries. Concentrates on the voluntary sector in relation to social welfare. Features of the voluntary organisations and new trends are described. Looks at the future of the sector.

WELFARE AND THE UNEMPLOYMENT CRISIS: SWEDEN IN THE 1990s

A. Bergmark and J Palme

International Journal of Social Welfare, vol. 12, 2003, p. 108-122

Describes Sweden's economic recession of the 1990s, concentrating on the increase in unemployment. Examines its influence on social policy. Looks at the effects of changes in the economy and social policy on vulnerable groups and identifies three groups who were particularly disadvantaged: young adults, immigrants and single mothers.

WELFARE POLICY FROM BELOW: STRUGGLES AGAINST SOCIAL EXCLUSION IN EUROPE

H. Stewert and A. Pilgrim

Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, 2003

The European system of social security and welfare is in need of a new perspective. This book contributes to developing this new form of 'social exclusion knowledge' with its conceptual and theoretical framework and its comparative empirical studies in eight European cities between Bologna and Stockholm.

WHEN OPPORTUNITY KNOCKS: ECONOMIC LIBERALISATION AND STEALTH WELFARE IN THE UNITED STATES

A. L. Newman

Journal of Social Policy, vol. 32, April 2003, p.179-197

Examines the survival and growth of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and Lifeline Universal Telephone Service schemes during a period of welfare retrenchment in the United States. Examines their features and identifies a strategy for social policy reform in the form of 'stealth welfare'.

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