W. van Oorschot and P. Abrahamson
Social Policy and Administration, Vol. 37, 2003, p.288-304
In both the Dutch and Danish Welfare states, active labour market policies have become increasingly prominent. Activation has been viewed as an important reason for the low unemployment rates which both states have experienced since the early to mid 1990s. The paper examines critically the activation measures taken in both countries and their alleged positive effects on employment. It also explores their effects on citizenship rights and obligations. It concludes that positive development of the labour market cannot be primarily attributed to activism measures. Furthermore, activism has reduced citizens' entitlements and increased their obligations.
Working Brief, No. 145, 2003, p.20-23
New York City's Human Resources Administration (HRA) is responsible for managing its welfare-to-work programme. The HRA has developed a rehabilitation programme for substance abusers, run by a non-profit managed care organisation, in the hope of making them more employable. Substance abusers are required to participate in the programme in order to receive their public assistance benefits.