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Welfare Reform on the Web (August 2003): Child Welfare - Overseas

DO CHILD CARE REGULATIONS AFFECT CHILD CARE AND LABOR MARKETS?

D.M. Blau

Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, vol.22, 2003, p.443-465

Economic theory predicts that binding and strictly enforced child care regulations will reduce the supply, raise the price and reduce demand for regulated child care, and as a result will reduce the labour supply of mothers of young children. If regulations are not binding on a large proportion of child care suppliers or if they are not effectively enforced, then there is less reason to expect that they will affect child care and labour markets. The study found that while child care regulations as a group had a significant effect on child care and labour markets, they did not vary enough over time within US states to allow precise identification of individual regulation impacts.

PHYSICAL PUNISHMENT AND THE RESPONSE OF THE CANADIAN CHILD WELFARE SYSTEM: IMPLICATIONS FOR LEGISLATIVE REFORM

N. Trocme and J. Durrant

Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law, vol.25, 2003, p.39-56

The Criminal Code defence for parents who use physical punishment is being challenged in the Canadian courts. Article demonstrates that the child welfare system is well placed to respond to the repeal of this defence. Physical punishment is one of the leading forms of maltreatment that the child welfare system is seeking to address. However the effectiveness of its response is not enhanced by the confusion over Section 43 of the Criminal Code which permits some arbitrary level of physical force to be used.

PUTTING CHILDREN FIRST? A COMPARISON OF CHILD ADOPTION POLICY AND PRACTICE IN BRITAIN AND FINLAND

P.M. Garrett and J. Sinkkonen

European Journal of Social Work, vol.6, 2003, p.19-32

In Britain adoption is promoted over efforts to support the biological family, whereas in Finland the emphasis is firmly on doing everything possible to support the birth family, with adoption being seen as a last resort. In Britain, there is a more overt willingness on the part of the state to intervene in the lives of individual children and their families. There is a notion that children in care require the courts and the state to permanently relocate them in more appropriate families. In Finland, however, there is a rooted reluctance to intervene in so drastic a way.

RISE AND DEMISE OF ORPHANAGES IN UKRAINE

B. Lough and P. Panos

European Journal of Social Work, vol.6, 2003, p.49-63

Draws parallels between the similar conditions which led to the demise of orphanages in the USA and the current deinstitutionalisation movement in the Ukraine. The effects of overcrowding, new policy developments, critical attitudes towards institutionalised child care, the professionalisation of social work and rechanneling of financial resources are addressed.

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