Journal of European Social Policy, vol.9, 1999, p. 139-163
Article begins by examining how mass housing policies came to be adopted in five North European countries. Goes on to trace the development of multiple problems on the resulting estates. Finally looks at the alternative approach that emerged to tackle estate problems. Estate renewal has used a bottom-up, organisational approach focusing on communication, social support, and an emphasis on people-centred remedies which linked marginal estates into city structures.