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Welfare Reform on the Web (November 2003): Social Security - Overseas

GOVERNANCE OF SOCIAL SECURITY REGIMES: TRENDS IN SENEGAL

A.Y. Diop

International Social Security Review, vol.56, no.3/4 2003, p.17-23

The social security system in Senegal consists of three autonomous institutions: the Social Security Fund, the Social Insurance Institute for Old Age Pensions in Senegal, and sickness insurance institutions. Article reviews the institutional pluralism which is a unique feature of the Senegalese system, the genuine autonomy of management which exists, and its results, illustrated by the example of the Social Security Fund.

INFORMAL ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL SECURITY IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

A. Maes

International Social Security Review, vol.56, no.3/4 2003, p.39-58

The majority of populations in sub-Saharan Africa are excluded from social security schemes because they work in the informal sector. This situation has led informal sector workers to create their own "safety nets". These include reliance on kinship and family ties, and mutual aid arrangements such as mutual benefit societies, co-operatives, microinsurance schemes, and rotatory saving and credit associations.

LINKING PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION AND EFFECTIVENESS: LESSONS FROM A POOLED SAMPLE OF WELFARE-TO-WORK EXPERIMENTS

H.S. Bloom, C. J. Hill and J.A. Riccio

Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, vol.22, 2003, p.551-575

Study showed that management choices for the implementation of welfare-to-work programmes strongly influence their success. A strong pro-employment message is a powerful medium for stimulating clients to find jobs. A clear staff focus on personal attention to clients can markedly increase their success, but large client caseloads can undermine programme effectiveness. Increased reliance on mandatory basic education reduces short-term programme effectiveness. The local economic environment is a major determinant of programme success; programmes are much less effective when jobs are scarce. Welfare-to-work programmes can be effective for many types of client, and targeting on clients who are especially job ready does not appear to influence programme success.

THE ROAD TO ECONOMIC SELF-SUFFICIENCY: JOB QUALITY AND JOB TRANSITION PATTERNS AFTER WELFARE REFORM

R.C. Johnson and M.E. Corcoran

Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, vol.22, 2003, p.615-639

A longitudinal study of recipients drawn from the welfare rolls in February 1997 shows that, despite improvements in job quality and extensive work effort over a five-year period, job instability and limited upward mobility characterised the experiences of most respondents. In Autumn 2001, half were out of the labour force, unemployed or underemployed, and only about one quarter were working in good jobs. The business cycle downturn appears to have adversely affected job quality and job transition patterns of former and current welfare recipients.

SOCIAL SECURITY IN RWANDA: OVERCOMING INDIFFERENCE

F.X. Ngarambe

International Social Security Review, vol.56, no.3/4 2003, p.11-16

Looks at the chances of overcoming the indifference of most African populations towards social security schemes. This indifference arises from the fact that the social security systems in place in many African countries were inherited from the colonial powers and were thus only relevant to very small sections of the working population. Author argues that social security should be made part of national strategies for development and poverty alleviation. Integrating them in this way would also help to extend social security coverage to populations currently excluded.

TRENDS IN SOCIAL SECURITY IN EAST AFRICA: TANZANIA, KENYA AND UGANDA

R.K. Dau

International Social Security Review, vol.56, no.3/4 2003, p.25-37

The social security systems in Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda comprise three tiers. Social assistance schemes provide primary health care, primary education, water, food security and disaster relief. Such services are financed by government budgetary allocations, non-governmental organisations and donor and UN agencies. The second tier consists of compulsory and contributory schemes financed by both employers and employees during the working life for terminal and short-term benefits. Schemes under the third tier include personal savings, co-operative and credit societies and occupational pension schemes.

UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE IN ALGERIA: HELP OR HINDRANCE?

A. Boussaidi

International Social Security Review, vol.56, no.3/4, p.157-175

The issue of employment has become crucial in Algeria. Not only does the economy no longer offer opportunities to job seekers, but reforms have also led to countless public sector enterprises being wound up, putting thousands out of work. Against this background, a system of temporary unemployment benefits has been introduced, although its effectiveness has been sharply criticised.

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