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Welfare Reform on the Web (March 2004): Education - Overseas

ANOTHER LOST GENERATION? THE IMPACT OF HIV/AIDS ON SCHOOLING IN SOUTH AFRICA

R. Moletsane

The International Journal on School Disaffection, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2004, p. 7-13

The article investigates the negative impacts HIV/AIDS have on children's education in South Africa. Many children are not able to go to school, having instead to care for sick relatives or younger siblings or find paid employment. Those infected with the virus are often too sick to attend and others cannot afford school fees or compulsory uniforms. The article recommends that schools change their practices in order to allow more students to attend, for example by scheduling classes later in the day when chores are completed and not insisting on pupils wearing uniforms. It also calls for the curriculum to incorporate vocational programmes and AIDS education to help provide children with the skills, knowledge and values that they need.

BETTER INFORMING EFFORTS TO INCREASE LATINO STUDENT SUCCESS IN HIGHER EDUCATION

L. Scott Miller and E.E. Garcia

Education and Urban Society, Vol. 36, 2004, p.189-204

The article considers the ways in which Latino students can be best prepared for, and supported during, their university years in order that they might achieve their full potential. It explores issues such as academic preparation, educational attainment vs academic achievement, and support programmes and emphasises the importance of continual monitoring of student progress.

CHICAGO SCHOOL POLICY: REGULATING BLACK AND LATINO YOUTH IN THE GLOBAL CITY

P. Lipman

Race, Ethnicity and Education, Vol. 6, 2003, p.331-355

In a world of increasing inequality, the article examines the effect US education policies centred on accountability and increased regulation have on African American and Latino youth. It focuses on four Chicago public elementary schools to illustrate what selective regulation of schooling means for students and their teachers. In particular the pressures of failing tests and being placed on probation, all too common for Latino and African American pupils, are highlighted. The article concludes that Chicago fails to provide a decent education for coloured children and that its education policy differentiates educational experience by race, ethnicity and social class. This failing then further traps Latino and African American communities in a low-skill, low-paid labour cycle.

CHICAGO'S USE OF SMALL SCHOOLS TO TACKLE THE DROP-OUT PROBLEM: A REPORT FROM THE FIELD

J.L. Nowaczewski

The International Journal of School Disaffection, Vol.1, No.2, 2004, p.37-48

In 2001 the Chicago Public School System committed itself to utilise small schools as a strategy to reduce drop-outs and increase graduation rates and college attendance. The article begins by examining why the small schools strategy has been chosen before looking at the methods used to implement the scheme. It then summarises the lessons learnt from the project and outlines goals for the future.

DECONSTRUCTING DEFICIT THINKING

S.B. Garcia and P.L. Guerra

Education and Urban Society, Vol. 36, 2004, p.150-168

The article examines the way in which educators can reduce failure and underachievement amongst students from low-income and/or racially or ethnically diverse backgrounds. In particular it challenges teachers' perceptions of such students and their families, warning them against over-generalising about family background and writing students off before they enter school, whilst encouraging cultural awareness.

DROPOUT-PREVENTION PROGRAMS

M. Robledo Monecel, J.D. Cortez and A. Cortez

Education and Urban Society, Vol. 36, 2004, p.169-188

The article examines the high dropout rates amongst Hispanic Students in America. It begins by highlighting the flaws in the current system of tracking students before going onto assess a number of dropout prevention programmes, including Achievement for Latinos through Academic Success, the Coca-Cola Valued Youth Program and the Hispanic Mother-Daughter Program. The article concludes with further recommendations to help tackle the problem.

HEARTS, MINDS AND EXTERNAL SUPERVISION OF SCHOOLS: DIRECTION AND DEVELOPMENT

D. Macnab

Educational Review, vol.56, 2004, p.53-64

Article examines the relationship between schools and regulatory bodies/inspectorates in the context of a number of countries and cultures, and reflects on the extent to which supervisory systems may be in conflict with the purposes they seek to promote.

PARTICIPATION IN HIGHER EDUCATION FOR STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES: AN IRISH PERSPECTIVE

M. Shevlin, M. Kenny and E. McNeela

Disability and Society, vol.19, 2004, p.15-30

Reports results of a small qualitative study of the experiences of people with disabilities participating in higher education in Ireland. Students reported variable experiences, with physical access remaining an obstacle to full participation. Generally, there was low awareness of student needs for assistive provision and assessment. A positive and informed staff/college attitude was crucial in ensuring access and equitable treatment. Calls for a comprehensive access service to replace the current piecemeal institutional approach.

PATHWAYS TO PARITY: A SURVEY OF 14-19 VOCATIONAL PROVISION IN DENMARK, NETHERLANDS AND NEW SOUTH WALES

Ofsted

London: 2004 (HMI 2124)

Survey found that in all three countries:

  • vocational courses are held in higher esteem by young people than in England, mainly because they are seen as providing clear pathways into higher education and employment;
  • staying on rates in full time education or training beyond the end of compulsory education are higher than in England;
  • employers are more consistently and directly involved in determining course content and assessment;
  • vocational teachers are normally required to have industrial experience;
  • structured work placements are a much stronger feature of post-16 vocational courses than in England;
  • vocational education takes place in good quality accommodation that reflects the working environment.

SPECIAL EDUCATION: DOES IT HELP? A STUDY OF SPECIAL EDUCATION IN NORWEGIAN UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOLS

E. Markussen

European Journal of Special Needs Education, Vol. 19, 2004, p. 34-48

The article examines special education in Norway in light of the 1994 reform of upper secondary education, which gave all 16 year olds, including those with special educational needs (SEN), the right to enter upper secondary school. A group of special needs students was monitored over a five-year period. The study found that SEN students in special classes achieved less than SEN students in ordinary classes. Increasing special education for SEN students in ordinary classes also had a negative impact on their progress. The article concludes that special education in Norwegian upper secondary schools does not reduce the differences between SEN students and their peers.

TOWARDS INCLUSIVE SCHOOLS: A STUDY OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN PRACTICE

A. Flem, T. Moen and S. Gudmundsdottir

European Journal of Special Needs Education, Vol. 19, 2004, p. 85-98

The article examines how a Norwegian teacher manages to include Special needs students in an ordinary classroom. In particular, it focuses on how she achieved positive academic and social outcomes for a boy with impulsive and uncontrolled behaviour.

UNIVERSITY EDUCATION FOR ALL? BARRIERS TO FULL INCLUSION OF STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES IN AUSTRALIAN UNIVERSITIES

J. Ryan and J. Struhs

International Journal of Inclusive Education, Vol. 8, 2004, p.73-90

The article examines the participation of disabled students in nursing courses at Australian universities. Although the Australian Disability Discrimination Act makes it unlawful for universities to discriminate against people with disabilities, rules for employment are different, causing difficulty with work placements. Students, nurse academics and university disability officers were questioned regarding the inclusion of disabled students in nurse education programmes. Results showed some hostility towards inclusion within higher education. A lack of knowledge of disability discrimination legislation was also revealed, even amongst disability officers. The article concludes that universities must examine the assumptions on which they base their curriculum practices and ensure that all relevant parties have a sound knowledge of disability legislation and its implications for nurse education.

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