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Welfare Reform on the Web (April 2004): Education - Overseas

ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON SOUTH AFRICAN EDUCATION AND TRAINING: A REVIEW OF THE EVIDENCE SO FAR

S. Akoojee and S. McGrath

Globalisation, Societies and Education, Vol.2, 2004, p.25-45

The article considers the effects of globalisation on the economy, and as a result education, in South Africa. Post-apartheid economic policies are examined, first the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP), a welfarist, people-based policy development and then the 1996 Growth, Employment and Redistribution (GEAR) strategy. The impact of GEAR on education reform, particularly the reduction in public school funding and the growth of the private education sector, is explored. Finally, the article looks at the brain drain that has hampered South Africa since 1994 and attempts being made to reverse this trend.

A CASE STUDY OF INCLUSIVE SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT: A JOURNEY OF LEARNING

S. Carrington and R. Robinson

International Journal of Inclusive Education, Vol. 8, 2004, p.141-153

The article examines the development of schools' inclusion policies with a case study of a large primary school in Queensland, Australia. Focusing on professional development, both in terms of school outlook and enhancing teacher skills and knowledge, it used and critically examined the Index for Inclusion - a framework designed in the UK to support schools developing their inclusion policies. The authors worked in the school one day a week, the first as a critical friend, a role which involved leading staff sessions, mentoring individual teachers, providing information and resources and involvement in planning and development meetings and the second as a learning support teacher and peer mentor. Data were collected through focus group interviews, surveys and the keeping of diaries. The study showed that the Index provided a useful framework for professional development, encouraging communication and collective problem solving between members of the school community.

THE CONCEPT OF INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: TEACHER TRAINING AND THE ACQUISITION OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN THE HEARING IMPAIRED

G.M.I. Wamae and R.K. Kang'ethe-Kamua

British Journal of Special Education, Vol. 31, 2004, p.33-40

Although formal teaching, assessment and examination in Kenyan schools is conducted in spoken and written English, pupils with hearing impairments are taught in specialist settings with Kenyan sign language, hindering their integration into mainstream society. The article explores the relationships between language, hearing impairment and inclusion in the Kenyan context and suggests that the use of signed exact English would enhance opportunities for inclusion. It emphasises the importance of training teachers in this area, and recommends the LAPSE (linguistics, anthropology, psychology, sociology, English and education) theory of teacher preparation, detailing the courses which ought to be offered by any training programme for teachers of English for foreign speakers.

DEMOCRACY, CIVIC PARTICIPATION AND THE UNIVERSITY: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CIVIC ENGAGEMENT ON FIVE CAMPUSES

S. A. Ostrander

Non Profit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Vol. 33, 2004, p.74-93

The article presents a comparative study of how five universities in the USA are involved in improving conditions in local communities. Results show that:

  • there are valuable emphases on the main components of university civic engagement as circumstances alter;
  • local factors both facilitate and present barriers to engagement;
  • an intellectual rationale and a set of intellectual projects are important for engaging faculty;
  • new organisational structures are needed to sustain campus-community partnerships that share power and resources.

HIGH STAKES EDUCATION; INEQUALITY, GLOBALIZATION AND URBAN SCHOOL REFORM

P. Lipman

London: RoutledgeFalmer 2004

This book provides a detailed examination of the effects of the dismantling and reconstruction of urban political economies and social networks on schools in one city, Chicago. Chicago school reforms have served as a model for the kind of programmes that many cities both inside the United States and beyond its borders are undertaking. The author shows what actually happens to teachers and children when policies involving strict accountability, massive amounts of testing, and similar practices are instituted.

IN SEARCH OF UNIVERSAL PRINCIPLES OF HIGHER EDUCATION MANAGEMENT AND APPLICABILITY TO MOLDAVIAN HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM

S.O. Michael

International Journal of Educational Management, vol.18, 2004, p.118-137

Identifies principles which the Moldavian government should apply when developing its higher education system in the context of globalisation and marketisation. The government should aim to increase participation in higher education, respect academic freedom and institutional autonomy while insisting on public accountability, encourage competition, and promote continuous quality improvement.

POLITICAL SPECTACLE AND THE FATE OF AMERICAN SCHOOLS

M. Lee Smith

London: Routledge, 2004

In recent years education events caught up with political spectacle theory, as more and more political figures began to tout education crises and propose sweeping government solutions. George W. Bush aspired to be the "education president" and Bill Clinton based his political platform on high stakes tests. These kinds of policy would solve the "crises" of public schools. The author lays out the theory of symbolic politics and political spectacle in American schooling and looks at the gaps between politics and education policy, including a critical look at the role that the corporate world plays in education policy.

PROMOTING INCLUSIVITY IN WESTERN AUSTRALIAN SCHOOLS

C. Forlin

International Journal of Inclusive Education, Vol. 8, 2004, p.185-202

The article details the validation of the Index for Inclusion for use in Western Australia. The Index was trialed in five schools, with the whole school involved in the research which took the form of focus groups, questionnaires and interviews. In the first phase co-ordinating groups were formed to identify barriers to learning and participation and consider how existing resources could be better used to remove them. Restrictions to becoming more inclusive were also noted. In phase two pupils, staff, parents and community members were all questioned regarding their understanding of the school. It concludes that the Index review process provides a valuable starting point for assessing and promoting inclusivity within a school community and that this validates the use of the Index in a Western Australian context.

THE REFLEXIVE MODERNIZATION OF AUSTRALIAN UNIVERSITIES

D. Pick

Globalisation, Societies and Education, Vol. 2, 2004, p.99-116

The article explores changes in Australian higher education in the context of the social, cultural, political and economic effects of globalisation. In particular, the challenges universities face as a result of increasing self-governance are discussed.

VALIDATING THE BRITISH INDEX FOR INCLUSION FOR THE AUSTRALIAN CONTEXT: STAGE ONE

J. Deppeler and D. Harvey

International Journal of Inclusive Education, Vol.8, 2004, p.155-184

The article reports on the first stage of a three-year study investigating the effectiveness and sustainability of a whole-school approach to improving inclusive practice and learning for students with disabilities in Victorian Catholic schools. The British Index for Inclusion was used as a framework and critically evaluated in order to validate its use for the Australian context. The validation involved six phases, including reviewing and revising the Index, setting up co-ordinating groups in participant schools to rate them against the Index and constructing a school organisation questionnaire to investigate each school's capacity for organisational learning. As a result of this process the Index was deemed too large and unwieldy to use in its original form. Separate questionnaire will be developed and submitted to members of an expert panel for comment. Once this has been achieved, stage two can commence.

WHAT IS "ENTERPRISE EDUCATION"? AN ANALYSIS OF THE OBJECTIVES AND METHODS OF ENTERPRISE EDUCATION PROGRAMMES IN FOUR EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

U. Hytti and C. O'Gorman

Education and Training, Vol. 46, 2004, p.11-23

The article explores what "enterprise education" is in practice in four European countries - the UK, Ireland, Austria and Finland. The authors give their definition of enterprise education and propose a conceptual schema for capturing the various objectives of the programmes before examining 50 enterprise programmes across primary, secondary and higher education. Components of a successful programme are considered, with the article concluding that a programme can only be successful if policy makers and educators have a thorough understanding of the diverse aims and objects of enterprise education interventions, the alternative forms such interventions can take and of the need to "train the trainer".

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