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Welfare Reform on the Web (May 2004): Education - UK - Overseas

ALTERED STATE

J. Purcell

Guardian Education, April 27th 2004, p.9

Spain's outgoing government pledged to make religious education compulsory in schools, but the new prime minister wants to keep Catholicism out of the classroom.

"CATCH ME I'M FALLING": KEY FACTORS IN THE DETERIORATION OF OFFSHORE EDUCATION PARTNERSHIPS

T. Heffernan and D. Poole

Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, Vol. 26, 2004, p.75-90

The article examines the relationships between Australian universities and their offshore partners as they deliver Australian academic programmes in the South-East Asian region. It considers the problems and issues in the management of offshore partnerships and explores the different stages of the relationship before examining empirical data. Twenty interviews were held with university offshore education programme practitioners and consultants, who emphasised the importance of building strong foundations early in the relationship. The interviews were followed by ten case studies examining relations between the universities and their offshore partners. These demonstrated that lack of trust, commitment and effective communication all contributed to the deterioration of relationships, and the article concludes that much greater attention must be paid to these aspects if offshore partnerships are to succeed.

THE CULTURE OF GOVERNANCE IN SOUTH AFRICAN PUBLIC HIGHER EDUCATION

M. Hall, A. Symes and T.M. Luescher

Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, Vol. 26, 2004, p.91-107

Public higher education in South Africa is beginning to change as mergers and incorporations break the mould of segregation, and the article examines higher education governance as part of the process. Four different types of governance are identified through a case study of twelve institutions, each combining international trends in higher education with the specific historical circumstances of South Africa. Each type is discussed in detail, providing an overview of the national education system, before the authors look to the future.

DO SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEMS MAKE IT MORE DIFFICULT FOR LOW PERFORMING SCHOOLS TO ATTRACT AND RETAIN HIGH-QUALITY TEACHERS?

C.T. Clotfelter and others

Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 23, 2004, p.251-271

Administrative data from North Carolina are used to explore the extent to which that State's relatively sophisticated school-based accountability system has exacerbated the challenges that schools serving low-performing students face in attracting and retaining high-quality teachers. There are clear adverse effects on retention rates, and hence on teacher turnover, in such schools. The extent to which that higher turnover has led to a decline in the average qualifications of teachers in low-performing schools is less clear.

DYNAMIC SELECTION EFFECTS IN MEANS-TESTED URBAN SCHOOL VOUCHER PROGRAMS

W.G. Howell

Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, Vol. 23, 2004, p.225-250

In 1997 the School Choice Scholarships Foundation announced its intention of offering scholarships worth up to $1400 per year toward tuition at a private school to children from low-income New York City families. An evaluation of the programme revealed that religious families showed most interest in privately educating their children provided they were satisfied with the student's ability to observe religious traditions in school. Unsurprisingly, parental satisfaction was also a significant predictor of how long a child remained in private school. Larger class sizes and school uniform requirements also increased the length of time voucher students remained in private schools. However, when students missed classes or were suspended during the school year they often left the programme.

EDUCATION FOR ALL: HOW MUCH WILL IT COST?

E. Delamonica, S. Mehrotra and J. Vandemoortele

Development and Change, Vol. 35, 2004, p.3-30

In 1990 two global conferences set a target of universal basic education by the year 2000. This failed for many reasons, but inadequate public funding across all countries was a significant contributory factor. This article charts progress to date in meeting a new target of achieving "education for all", set by the Millennium Summit for 2015. It focuses the costs of the project, approximately US$9.1 billion, but also considers other factors determining its success, including improving the quality of education and tackling the problem of HIV/AIDS. It concludes that although "education for all" is affordable at a global level, the target is unlikely to be met without a greater contribution from official development assistance (ODA) and major changes to national budgets.

THE FADING OF A TEACHING PROFESSION: REFORMS IN EARLY CHILDHOOD TEACHER EDUCATION IN SWEDEN

M.K. Lohmander

Early Years, Vol. 24, 2004, p.23-34

The article presents a summary of the history of preschool teacher education in Sweden. It discusses the most recent reform under which eight separate teacher training programmes, preschool teacher education being one of them, have been replaced by a single integrated teaching degree.

INEFFICIENT EDUCATION SPENDING IN PUBLIC SCHOOL DISTRICTS: A CASE FOR CONSOLIDATION?

M.E. Dodson and T.A. Garrett

Contemporary Economic Policy, Vol. 22, 2004, p.270-280

The article explores whether rural school districts could save money through consolidation. The authors simulated a hypothetical consolidation scenario in which several neighbouring, rural and low-enrolment school districts in Arkansas were consolidated into a single district. Results showed that, on average, each district would experience a 34% saving in costs per student. This would alleviate some of the fiscal pressures faced by state and local governments and would free funds for other services. Schools would have money to hire and retain qualified teachers through paying higher salaries, and additional training would be possible. However, despite these gains, consolidation could cause additional problems, such a greater travelling time for students. The article concludes that officials must examine all the evidence in order to make informed decisions about the consolidation of school districts.

PERFORMANCE-BASED FUNDING IN THE ENTREPRENEURIAL NORTH AMERICAN AND AUSTRALIAN UNIVERSITIES

R. Sharma

Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, Vol. 26, 2004, p.108-118

Interest in performance based funding in Australian higher education dates back to the 1990s. From 2002 university research funding has also been distributed on a performance basis. The article reports on a study of performance-based funding in North American universities in order to help Australian universities enhance their resource planning whilst encouraging entrepreneurship.

THE SCHOOL TO WORK TRANSITION OF CANADIAN POST-SECONDARY GRADUATES: A DYNAMIC ANALYSIS

R. Finnie

Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, Vol. 26, 2004, p.35-58

The article reports the results on an empirical analysis of the workplace experiences of recent Canadian post-secondary graduates. Data were taken from National Graduate Surveys, representing students who had graduated in 1982, 1986 and 1990. Information was collected on the job-education skills match and the relationship between the job's educational prerequisites and the graduate's qualifications and job satisfaction, and a critical review of the educational programme was undertaken. Results showed that the number of graduates had increased over the period, with many obtaining additional diplomas in the years following graduation. Job-education skills match and job satisfaction were relatively high, although both increased at master's and PhD level. Overall, graduates were generally happy with their educational choices and most would choose the same programme again.

A STRATEGIC VIEW OF EFFORTS TO LEAD THE TRANSFORMATION OF SCHOOLS

B.J. Caldwell

School Leadership & Management, Vol. 24, 2004, p.81-99

The article looks at the schools of the future and considers the leadership skills that will be required if they are to succeed. It begins by setting out a number of scenarios for future schools, with particular reference to the emerging knowledge economy, before exploring the role of knowledge management within the process. Organisational arrangements, specifically governance structures and funding, and school leadership are then examined, with the conclusion that national strategies are required to build capacity for leadership in schools and school systems. The article concludes with a strategic outline for the transformation of schools.

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