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Welfare Reform on the Web (July 2004): Education - Overseas

ACADEMIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP: UNIVERSITY SPINOFFS AND WEALTH CREATION

S. Shane

Cheltenham, Glos : Edward Elgar Publishing, 2004

This volume explains the formation of university spinoff companies and their role in the commercialization of university research and wealth creation in the Unites States and elsewhere. The importance of university spinoff is discussed and the historical development of spinoff ventures is traced over time.

ARE EDUCATION AND EFFICIENCY ANTITHETICAL?

W.L. Boyd

Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 42, 2004, p.160-173

The article argues against the theory that education and efficiency are in direct opposition to one another, asserting that it is necessary to evaluate the relative success of different policies and practices if educational resources are to be used as widely and effectively as possible. It explores the issues involved, and the steps required, for a balanced and appropriate pursuit of efficiency that preserves educational values whilst avoiding the dangers of the "cult of efficiency".

AUSTRALIAN POST-COMPULSORY SCHOOL STUDENTS' LEARNING IN WORKPLACES

E. Smith

Research in post-Compulsory Education, Vol. 9, 2004, p.105-122

The article examines the participation in workplace learning of Australian post-compulsory school students. It focuses on students' experiences of work experience, vocational placements and part-time work, noting the differences between school-arranged and non-school-arranged activities. Results show that whereas students found part-time work enhanced their learning and had a beneficial effect on their school lives, they gained relatively little from their work experience. Vocational placements were seen as developing existing specific skills rather than of use for learning entirely new things. The article concludes by assessing the implecations of the findings for curriculum co-ordinators and calls for further research into enhancing the links between school and work for the benefit of all concerned.

BEST INTERESTS OF THE STUDENT: AN ETHICAL MODEL

J.A. Stefkovich and G.M. O'Brien

Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 42, 2004, p.197-214

The article examines how the ethical dimensions of educational leadership relate to the best interests of students with reference to legal decisions. It thoroughly explores the concept of "the best interests of the student" and provides a framework for analysing ethical dilemmas and determining the most effective ethical decision-making strategies for supporting students' "best interests".

BEST INTERESTS OF STUDENTS LEFT BEHIND?

M.S. Torres

Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 42, 2004, p.249-269

The article examines the ethical implications of the U.S. Federal Government's No Child Left Behind Act. The Act symbolises the government's determination to hold school systems accountable for student's results and addresses issues such as gaps in test performance between whites and those of colour, incoherent and redundant curricula and systemic complacency. However, the article argues that minimal attention has been paid to the complex ethical dimensions of policies intended to improve education on a broad scale. When the meaning of "fairness" and "equity" are not negotiated in advance with stakeholders, doubts are raised about the fundamental purpose of the initiative.

COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION AND EMPOWERMENT IN PRIMARY EDUCATION

R. Govinda and R. Diwan

New Delhi: Sage Publications, 2004

It is widely recognized that community participation can play an important role in promoting primary education. It also has the potential to increase awareness levels and to bring about improvements in health and living standards. This volume presents the grassroots experiences, problems encountered, and lessons learnt from initiatives launched in five Indian states - Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Bihar and Kerala. The book covers important issues including how community participation works in an environment characterized by deep-rooted socio-economic divisions; the equitable distribution of participation; identifying and defining the community; and ensuring the genuine representation of those who are traditionally excluded from decision-making in rural areas.

HAS EDUCATIONAL SECTOR ANY IMPACT ON SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS IN HUNGARY?

J. Dronkers and P. Róbert

European Societies, Vol. 6, 2004, p.205-236

The article explores whether pupils attending religious gymnasiums in Hungry achieve better grades and have a better chance of entering vocational college or university than their public gymnasium peers. Questionnaires were distributed to 4th grade secondary school students in nearly all secondary schools in Hungary. Results show that pupils educated at religious gymnasiums were more successful both in assessment and in entering higher education. Although Catholic schools attained better results than their Calvinist and Lutheran counterparts, such schools are relatively new and results indicate that this will not be the case once they have had time to develop. The article thus concludes that religious gymnasiums are more effective than their public counterparts.

MORAL LEADERSHIP IN SCHOOLS

W. D. Greenfield.

Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 42, 2004, p.174-196

School leadership is, by nature and focus, a moral activity, and moral leadership can enable school administrators to lead in a manner that can best help teachers develop and empower themselves to teach and lead in the context of external pressures to reform schools. The article reviews the literature in the moral leadership field and suggests ways of focusing the study of school leadership, with particular attention to the meanings, perspectives and espresed purposes of school leaders' actions, social relationships, and interpersonal orientations.

OVER-EDUCATION IN EUROPE: CURRENT ISSUES IN THEORY AND POLICY

F. Buchel, A. de Grip and A. Mertens

Cheltenham, Glos: Edward Elgar, 2004

The authors study evidence that a substantial number of workers in Europe are overqualified and challenge the wisdom of greater investment in the education of the workforce. They move on to look at labour mobility and skill mismatches in the labour market, and examine the impact of over-education on earnings. They also address the issue of how to measure employee over-qualification, and propose an income based ratio based on the difference between actual and potential earnings. Finally, they look at the effect of over-education on specific groups in society such as licensed professionals, university graduates and ethnic minorities.

RE-EXAMINING RACE-BASED ADMISSIONS PROCESSES OF AMERICAN INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION USING MULTI-DIMENSIONAL ETHICAL PERSPECTIVES

K.J. Gutierrez and P.C. Green

Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 42, 2004, p.236-248

The article looks at American universities' use of race as a criterion in their admissions decisions. It reviews three important cases regarding race-based admission policies - Regents of the University of California V Bakke (1978), Grutter V Bollinger (2003) and Gratz V Bollinger (2003) - before analysing these decisions using an ethical framework incorporating five different perspectives (the ethics of critique, justice, profession, care and community). Areas of agreement and conflict between the goals of race-based admissions policies and the decisions in these cases are then discussed.

THE RESEARCH ON SCHOOL MARKETING: CURRENT ISSUES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

I. Oplatka and J. Hemsley-Brown

Journal of Educational Administration, Vol. 42, 2004, p.375-400

The article reviews the research on how schools implement their marketing strategies in the competitive environment introduced into compulsory education since the 1980s. It finds that many school principals consider marketing to be unethical in an education context, and contrary to their core values. Most schools do not have a comprehensive marketing plan, and tend to focus on promotion and selling rather than developing their product to meet client needs.

VIEWS FROM THE EASTERN FRONT

R. Floud

Education Guardian, June 15th 2004, p. 22

Article reports on the state if higher education in the new members of the European Union where private universities flourish because the budgets of state universities are constrained.

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