M. Cancian and D.R. Meyer
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, vol.23, 2004, p.531-548
Current debates about the success of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) reforms in the USA have been obscured by the use of inconsistent indicators. Paper considers the conceptual and measurement issues associated with three different indicators of economic well-being: independence from public assistance, having income above the poverty threshold and freedom from material hardship. Survey and administrative data from a sample of TANF participants illustrate the sensitivity of conclusions to alternative ways of measuring each indicator.
M.P. Bitler and others
Demography, vol.41, 2004, p.213-236
Study examined the effect of welfare reform on marriages and divorces in the US using flow data from vital statistics for 1989-2000. Results suggest that welfare reform (state waivers and implementation of Temporary Assistance to Needy Families) is associated with significantly fewer new marriages and fewer divorces.
M. Einerhand and G. Nekkers
International Social Security Review, vol.57, July-September 2004, p.25-43
Argues that social security is not solely a state matter, but that firms, trade unions, industrial sectors and the individual all have role to play. Article looks at various ways in which responsibility for insuring against social risks such as sickness and unemployment can be divided between the various players, focusing on multipillar systems and savings accounts.
International Social Security Review, vol.57, July-September 2004, p.45-64
One result of the complex economic and social changes impacting on the welfare state is the emergence of "new social risks", such as access to adequately paid employment for low-skilled young people and managing the work-life balance for women with family responsibilities and careers. These new risks coexist with the old social risks that traditional welfare states developed to meet, such as unemployment and retirement from paid work. New social risks offer policymakers the opportunity to replace costly passive benefits with policies which mobilise the workforce, enhancing economic competitiveness and reducing poverty. However, the political constituencies to support such policies are weak, since the risks affect people most strongly at particular life stages and among specific groups. Paper examines attitudes to new social risk labour market policies in four contrasting European countries.
J. Stuber and K. Kronebusch
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, vol.23, 2004, p.509-530
Low-income families in the USA frequently do not participate in the means-tested government programmes for which they are eligible. Authors developed a conceptual framework to examine the association between stigma, enrolment barriers (e.g. difficult application process), knowledge, state policy and participation in Temporary Assistance for Needy Families and adult Medicaid programmes. Survey data from 901 community health centre patients showed that, while images of the Medicaid programme were generally positive, stigma associated with welfare stereotypes reduced both Medicaid and TANF enrolment. Expectations of poor treatment when applying for Medicaid, enrolment barriers and wrong information about programme rules were also associated with reduced Medicaid participation.
J.M. Fitzgerald and D.C. Ribar
Demography, vol.41, 2004, p.189-212
Article assesses the impact of state-level welfare reform (waivers and Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) implementation), on women's decisions to become unmarried heads of families, controlling for confounding influences from local economic and social conditions. Study used pooled data from the 1990, 1992, 1993 and 1996 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation, which cover the period when many US states adopted welfare reforms. Found litte consistent evidence that welfare reform affected female headship of families.