D. Finn and N. Branosky
Department for Work and Pensions, 2004 (Research report; no.215)
The Youth Allowance was introduced in 1998 to provide eligible young people with an adequate income while they are studying, looking for or preparing for paid employment. It is a conditional and means-tested benefit. To be eligible, young people must be either in full time education or actively preparing for work. Families of "dependent" young people are subject to a parental means test. Other means tests are applied to any income or part-time earnings of the young person.
K.I. Beltrao, S.S. Pinheiro and F.E. Barreto de Oliveira
International Review of Social Security, Vol.57, Oct.-Dec. 2004, p.19-49
Brazil's 1988 constitution relaxed rules on eligibility for pensions and social assistance as well as doubling their value. However the changes were only implemented in 1991. The article analyses access to social assistance and pensions among the Brazilian rural population before and after the reforms. Results show that social security coverage improved for the rural population between 1988 and 1998, that per capita family income of families with older members in rural Brazil rose, and that women's access to benefits also increased.