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Welfare Reform on the Web (November 2004): Education - Overseas

AN ANALYSIS OF ENABLING SCHOOL STRUCTURE: THEORETICAL, EMPIRICAL AND RESEARCH CONSIDERATIONS

J.E. Sinden, W.K. Hoy and S.R. Sweetland

Journal of Educational Administration, Vol.42, 2004, p.462-478

Structure can either hinder or enable the effective operation of schools. Healthy organisational structures guide behaviour, clarify responsibility, reduce stress and empower individuals. In this paper, six high schools, which were found to have enabling structures in a large quantitative study of Ohio schools, are analysed in depth using semi-structured interviews. Based on these interviews, the article describes enabling school structures in terms of their formalisation (formal rules and procedures), centralisation (hierarchy of formal authority), and functioning.

COLLEGE TUITION AND PERCEPTIONS OF PRIVATE UNIVERSITY QUALITY

T. Li-Ping Tang, D. Shin-Hsiung Tang and C. Shin-Yi Tang

International Journal of Education Management, Vol.18, 2004, p.304-316

The article explores the relationship between tuition fees and certain predictor variables (the type of institution, the existence of professional schools, geographic region, average SAT scores, etc.) in 190 private U.S. colleges and universities. Results show that these variables account for 70% of the variance in college tuition and that "you get what you pay for" in American higher education. Institutions with higher fees attract the brightest students, have better facilities, and produce the highest earning graduates. The implications of these findings for students and their parents, the institutions themselves and human resource management are discussed.

A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF YOUTH AND VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN NORTHERN IRELAND AND DENMARK

N. McBride, T. Morrow and C. Ackah

Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol.28, 2004, p.519-532

The paper considers whether the Jobskills Training Programme in Northern Ireland provides social or economic benefits to young people. Although the programme has helped some young people, it is questionable whether it prepares the majority for jobs that are actually available in the real world. In order to assess the scheme's effectiveness it is compared to the Danish vocational training model. A number of differences are noted and, in light of this, a new vocational model is suggested.

CONTRIBUTIONS OF UNIVERSITIES TO REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: A QUASI-EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH

H.A. Goldstein and C.S. Renault

Regional Studies, Vol.38, 2004, p.733-746

The research showed that, in the USA, the presence of a top research university did not contribute to regional economic development, measured by the gain in average earnings per worker, in 1969-86. However, it was a significant factor in the period 1986-98, when universities became more entrepreneurial. Overall, results support the view that universities' research and technology development activities generate significant knowledge spillovers that are captured within the regional environment and result in enhanced regional economic development.

EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION IN KOREA: DISCREPANCY BETWEEN NATIONAL KINDERGARTEN CURRICULUM AND PRACTICES

Y.-I. Kwon

Educational Review, Vol.56, 2004, p.297-312

The study reveals that despite a child centred Korean National Curriculum, and the teachers' beliefs, the actual practices in Korean settings are significantly different from child-centred philosophies. Even though a child-centred National Kindergarten Curriculum emphasizes individuality and creativity, in reality, lessons are mainly teacher directed rather than children being encouraged to explore their own interests. Teachers use approaches, including extrinsic motivation, separation of play time from work time, and use of worksheets, which are considered inappropriate in Western early years education. This discrepancy could be explained by factors such as the reflection of traditional Korean education values, low adult to child ratios, and parental pressure.

EDUCATION POLICY: GLOBALIZATION, CITIZENSHIP & DEMOCRACY

M. Olssen, J. Codd and A-M. O'Neill

London: Sage Publications, 2004

This book provides an international perspective on education policy, and on the role and function of education in the global economy. It presents a Foucauldian perspective on the politics of liberal education within a theoretical framework necessary for the critical analysis of education policy.
Its authors set out analyses necessary for understanding the restructuring of education and social policy that has occurred in many countries affected by the rise of neo-liberal political theory. The authors argue that globalization is an extension of neo-liberalism and is destructive of the nation state, community and democracy, whilst highlighting the importance of building strong democratic nation states and global communities based on cultural identity and inter-cultural awareness.

FURTHER EDUCATION AND TRAINING IN THE FRENCH PUBLIC SECTOR

P. Méhait and C. Perez

Public Management Review, Vol. 6, 2004, p.333-352

The article begins by describing the further and vocational education and training institutional framework in France for the public and private sectors. It goes on to present a case study of training policy in a large public research organisation, focusing on the tension between the concept of training as an individual right and the notion that it is a tool for organisational learning. It then compares training policy at the case study organisation with the public sector as a whole and with private organisations, identifying some characteristics that are specific to the public sector.

HIGHER EDUCATION TEACHERS AND EMOTIONAL LABOUR

P. Constanti and P. Gibbs

International Journal of Education Management, Vol.18, 2004, p.243-249

Higher education institutions are being seen more and more as businesses, with staff being expected to perform emotional labour in order to achieve both customer (i.e. student) satisfaction and profit for the management. The article uses data taken from interviews in a higher education institution in Cyprus to explore the effect this policy has on academic staff.

INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION IN THE EARLY YEARS: CONVERSATIONS WITH EUROPEAN EDUCATORS

C. Nutbrown and P. Clough

European Journal of Special Needs Education, Vol.19, 2004, p.301-315

The paper reports findings from the Comparative Approaches to Preschool Education: Special Educational Needs Project. This survey of 113 European early childhood educators working in mainstream schools gathered data from questionnaires, e-mail conversations and face-to-face interviews. The paper draws on extracts from the data to explore the themes of educators' personal/professional experiences, professional development, and the role of parents.

OFFSHORE TEACHING AND LEARNING: AN EXPLORATORY SINGAPOREAN STUDY

N. Richards and D.L. Ross

International Journal of Education Management, Vol.18, 2004, p.260-265

The article explores two different offshore provisions of business degree programmes at James Cook University in Singapore. It argues that combining the two models to help ensure a flexible and enterprising approach to learning and teaching will lead to the most positive educational outcomes. The importance of cultural context to the success of such enterprises is also stressed.

THE PLANNING PROCESS IN MANAGING ORGANISATIONS OF CONTINUING EDUCATION: THE CASE OF GREEK VOCATIONAL TRAINING INSTITUTIONS

E. Petridou and P. Chatzipanagiotou

International Journal of Education Management, Vol.18, 2004, p.215-223

Education is a gateway into organised society, and thus contributes to individual, social and national development. New educational services and products are in constant demand in order to ensure users' needs are met, and yet financial resources are limited. The article offers a framework model for planning the activities of continuing education institutions which will allow them to determine their mission, seek specific aims and develop resources. The authors argue that applying this method will help organisations adapt to the changes and challenges of the contemporary education environment.

THE RHETORIC AND REALITY OF AID: PROMOTING EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY IN EGYPT

M. Warschauer

Globalisation, Societies and Education, vol.2, 2004, p.377-390

The paper examines a US foreign aid project to promote the use of new technologies in Egyptian education. Though the project sought to improve teaching and learning, an examination of its implementation indicates how goals of Westernisation ended up taking precedence. This underlying emphasis on Westernisation weakened the project's potential contribution to educational improvement. However, grass roots Egyptian teachers used the training they received under the programme to develop their own educational technology initiatives outside of the control of the programme.

SECONDARY EDUCATION AS A UNIVERSAL HUMAN RIGHT

S. Grover

Education and the Law, Vol.16, 2004, p.21-31

International human rights instruments stipulate that the child's right to education involves the right to develop their full potential. This is unlikely to occur for most children until they complete their secondary education. The article argues that States have an obligation under international law to ensure access to inclusive school systems that facilitate secondary school completion by extending free, compulsory education to the end of secondary.

A SYNTHESIS OF A QUALITY MANAGEMENT MODEL FOR EDUCATION IN UNIVERSITIES

G. Srikanthan and J. Dalrymple

International Journal of Educational Management, Vol.18, 2004, p.266-279

The article attempts to create a model for quality management in higher education based on four methodologies, each with a different perspective on learners' and institutions' views of education. The model has an overall "transformative" approach, seeking to bring about changes in students' understanding. The authors believe these methodologies can be combined to form the model, providing the basis for quality in education in universities.

A SYSTEMS APPROACH TO QUALITY IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS: A THEORETICAL AND EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

C.J. Carter and W.K. Hoy

Journal of Educational Administration, Vol.42, 2004, p.539-554

The article describes a test of the hypothesis that schools will be effective when the needs of the individual are consistent with the formal demands of the work in a culture that supports collective effort and reduces political conflict. It finds that highly motivated teachers in a supportive structure directly improve student learning. The challenge is to build administrative structures that support teaching efforts so as to overcome the adverse effects of deprivation on pupils. From the teacher's point of view, a school functions effectively where there is a culture of trust without debilitating internal politics.

TEACHER APPRAISAL: A LESSON ON CONFUSION OVER PURPOSE

R. Gratton

International Journal of Educational Management, Vol.18, 2004, p.292-296

Appraisal has been compulsory in schools in New Zealand since 1997 but its purpose remains vague. The article examines teachers' perceptions of the purpose of the appraisal system, and how these affected its implementation. Staff at a large urban secondary school were questioned regarding their appraisal system. Results showed that the teachers had no clear idea of the purpose of appraisal and felt that it was a waste of their time, with a few seeing it as a threat. The article concludes that improvements must be made as soon as possible, as the system at present is totally ineffective.

TECHNOLOGY POLICY AS A STEALTH AGENT OF GLOBAL CHANGE

T. Monahan

Globalisation, Societies and Education, vol.2, 2004, p.355-376

The article explains some of the constricting rules and power-plays of the policy game of wiring US state schools for Internet access. It first traces the development of the Federal government's E-Rate programme in Los Angeles Unified School District, illustrating how translation of rigid E-Rate policies generated uncertainty, stress and poor design outcomes. It then relates disputes across two of the organisation's social worlds (central and local technologists) over which group should set technical specifications for California's technology grant AB2882. The argument is that the design of technological infrastructures in state education embed globalisation ideologies and logics into institutional and material forms such that individuals are forced to adapt to inflexible structures.

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