Community Development Journal, vol.39, 2004, p.266-276
Two approaches to community planning in the USA - advocacy planning and collaborative planning - are compared and evaluated with respect to their ability to empower community residents. Two case studies in Chicago, Illinois are used to demonstrate the application, use and limitations of each.
Community Development Journal, vol.39, 2004, p.252-265
Conditions for the urban poor have worsened in many places, especially in Africa. Structural adjustment, deregulation, commercialisation and increased reliance on the private sector have reduced the scope, or changed the nature, of government intervention on behalf of the poor. Paper examines the extent to which local political systems provide a channel for poor urban residents to exercise political influence in ten cities in Africa, Asia and Latin America.