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Welfare Reform on the Web (February 2005): Education - Overseas

ADMISSION PREFERENCES FOR MINORITY STUDENTS, ATHLETES AND LEGACIES AT ELITE UNIVERSITIES

T.J. Espenshade, C.Y. Chung and J.L. Walling

Social Science Quarterly, vol.85, 2004,p.1422-1446

Study examines how preferences for different types of applicants exercised by elite US universities influence the composition of the student body. An analysis of admission decisions shows that elite universities give preference to applicants with SAT scores above 1500, applicants who are African-Americans and applicants who are athletes. A smaller, but significant preference is shown to Hispanic students and children of alumni.

CIVIC SOCIALIZATION IN PUBLIC AND FUNDAMENTALIST SCHOOLS

R.K. Godwin, J.W. Godwin and V. Martinez-Ebers

Social Science Quarterly, vol.85, 2004, p.1097-1111

Critics of fundamentalist schools are concerned that they will not socialise students to the attitudes and values appropriate to a pluralistic liberal democracy. Among these values are support for democratic norms, political tolerance, moral reasoning and autonomy, duty to community and acceptance of non-traditional lifestyles. Article examines the basis for the critics' concerns by comparing 10th and 12th grade students attending regular state and Christian fundamentalist schools. Results show that by the 12th grade students in fundamentalist schools surpassed students in state schools on many of the desired attitudes and values, but remained less accepting of non-traditional lifestyles.

COMPARING STATE HEGEMONIES: CHINESE UNIVERSITIES IN POSTWAR SINGAPORE AND HONG KONG

T.-H. Wong

British Journal of Sociology of Education, vol.26, 2005, p.199-218

After World War II, Chinese residents of Singapore demanded the establishment of local Chinese universities. Under pressure from the ethnic Malays and the government of the Malayan Peninsula, the ruling regime in Singapore was unable to accommodate such schools. In Hong Kong, the British needed to set up a Chinese university in order to counter attempts by Beijing and Taiwan to recruit students from the colony. As Hong Kong was a monoracial Chinese society, the government, not having to appease other indigenous groups, founded a fully recognised Chinese university.

THE CONTINUING CONSEQUENCES OF SEGREGATION: FAMILY STRESS AND COLLEGE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

C.Z. Charles, G. Dinwiddie and D.S. Massey

Social Science Quarterly, vol.85, 2004, p.1353-1373

African-American college students from segregated neighbourhoods experience higher levels of family stress than others. This stress is due to the violence and disorder prevalent in segregated neighbourhoods. Students respond by devoting more time to family issues, and their health and grades suffer as a result.

CONTINUOUS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION

J.R. Dew and M.M. Nearing

Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004

Continuous Improvement is essential for higher education leaders because it is now being embedded inn the re-accreditation processes of many accrediting associations. This book offers a historical perspective on pioneering institutions in Continuous Improvement. The authors also describe a variety of effective practises that campuses can use for strategic planning, self-assessment, benchmarking, building a collaborative culture, and applying CI concepts to teaching and learning.

DOES WHOLE SCHOOL REFORM BOOST STUDENT PERFORMANCE? THE CASE OF NEW YORK CITY

R. Bifulco, W. Duncombe and J. Yinger

Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, vol.24, 2005, p.47-72

Paper uses quasi-experimental methods to estimate the effect of whole-school reform on pupils' reading performance in New York City, where various reform programmes were adopted in various troubled primary schools in the 1990s. Two popular reform programmes, the School Development Program and Success for All were not found to have significantly improved reading scores, but might have done if they had been fully implemented. The More Effective Schools programme was found to boost reading scores but the effect seemed to disappear when the programme "trainers" left the school.

GERMAN UNIVERSITIES WIN RIGHT TO CHARGE STUDENT TUITION FEES

H. Willamson

Financial Times, Jan. 27th 2005, p.9

Germany's top court have cleared the way for universities to charge student tuition fees for the first time, in a landmark ruling set to send shock waves through Germany's higher education system

GRAY PERIL OR LOYAL SUPPORT? THE EFFECTS OF THE ELDERLY ON EDUCATIONAL EXPENDITURES

M.B. Berkman and E. Plutzer

Social Science Quarterly, vol.85, 2004, p.1178-1192

There are concerns that older voters in the USA vote against increasing expenditure on local schools. However, analysis of the data from more than 9,000 school districts shows that longstanding older residents represent a source of support for educational spending, while elderly migrants lower spending. Further, this divide among the elderly and their impact on policy outputs depends on how states finance local public education and on aspects of state and local tax policy. The results are consistent with the idea that community loyalty competes with and often outweighs self-interest.

IMPROVING SERVICE DELIVERY IN EDUCATION THROUGH COLLABORATION: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF THE ROLE OF CROSS-SECTORAL ALLIANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND SUPPORT OF CHARTER SCHOOLS.

P.Wohlstetter and others

Social Science Quarterly, vol.85, 2004, p.1078-1096

Interviews with charter school experts in 37 states showed that organisations form the non-profit, for-profit and public sectors are involved in alliances with charter schools. These alliances offer a range of financial (e.g facilities, salaries), political (e.g. legitimacy, credibility) and organisational (e.g. management) benefits. Concludes that cross-sectoral alliances can help charter schools deliver high quality education.

INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION IN AUSTRALIAN UNIVERSITIES: UNDERSTANDINGS, DIMENSIONS AND PROBLEMS

S. Meiras

Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, vol.26, 2004, p.371-380

Author argues that internationalisation in Australian universities occurred in two waves. Early internationalisation endeavours were based on a philosophy of aid or assistance and followed Australia's participation in the 1951 Colombo Plan for Co-operation and Development in South and South-East Asia. The second wave of internationalisation occurred after the implementation of the Overseas Student Policy in 1985. Under this policy, education is viewed as an export and internationalisation has been driven by the need to generate income.

IS HIGHER EDUCATION BECOMING A COMMODITY?

J.L. Doti

Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, vol.26, 2004, p.363-369

Private colleges and universities in the USA use variable tuition fees and grants (financial aid) as pricing tools to achieve objectives such as making the college experience more affordable or attracting better prepared students. Paper develops a statistical model covering the years 1992-2002 to measure the forces that lead colleges and universities to vary their pricing. Results suggest that schools with lower student selectivity need to give back a higher proportion of fee increases to students in the form of discounts than do higher selectivity schools.

NCLB AND TEACHER RETENTION: WHO WILL TURN OUT THE LIGHTS?

D.M. Hill and M. Barth

Education and the Law, vol.16, 2004, p.173-181

The US No Child Left Behind Act 2001 requires teachers to be "highly qualified". This means that teachers can only function within their own area of expertise, for example a teacher with a biology degree cannot teach physics. Experienced teachers working outside of their degree subject are being asked to go back to college to get a formal qualification or to pass a competency test. This is causing them to leave in droves. At the same time, people with a degree in a core subject and no formal pedagogical training are being accepted as "highly qualified" teachers.

THE OMBUDSMAN FOR CHILDREN: AN ANALYSIS OF THE IRISH MODEL AS IT RELATES TO RECOGNIZED SCHOOLS

D. Glendenning

Education and the Law, vol.16, 2004, p.133-143

The first Ombudsman for Children in Eire was appointed in December 2003 with the remit of promoting children's rights and investigating complaints against public bodies, voluntary hospitals and schools. Article defines the scope of the Ombudsman's remit in schools. Points out that the Ombudsman is subject to a ministerial veto on investigating complaints, which compromises his/her independence.

PLATO VS SOCRATES: THE EVOLVING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS AND THEIR STUDENTS

W.P. Hoye and D. Palfreyman

Education and the Law, vol.16, 2004, p.97-113

Article examines student legal claims against colleges and universities in the US and the UK under contract, tort and public law principles, focusing particularly on the evolving legal relationships between higher education institutions and their students.

RESEARCH ASSESSMENT AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR STEERING HIGHER EDUCATION: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

D. Orr

Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, vol.26, 2004, p.345-362

Paper argues that research assessment is of increasing importance as a tool of New Public Management and in the context of efforts to establish a European Research Area. Compares procedures of research assessment in the Netherlands, the UK, Ireland and Germany in order to identify basic design options for such procedures.

THE ROLE OF THE FAMILY AND THE SCHOOL IN THE REPRODUCTION OF EDUCATIONAL INEQUALITIES IN THE POST-COMMUNIST CZECH REPUBLIC

P. Matêju and J. Straková

British Journal of Sociology of Education, vol.26, 2005, p.17-40

Multi-year gymnasia were introduced into the Czech education system after the fall of Communism in 1989. They are selective and draw their pupils from the more advantaged social classes. Although their pupils have far higher levels of academic achievement than those attending basic schools, they are not vehicles of upward educational mobility. They in fact perpetuate existing social divisions, and should be replaced by comprehensive schools.

THE SAT II MINORITY/MAJORITY TEST-SCORE GAPS AND WHAT THEY COULD MEAN FOR COLLEGE ADMISSIONS?

M.K. Thomas

Social Science Quarterly, vol.85, 2004, p.1318-1334

Although most US universities do not currently use SAT II subject tests to make admission decisions, growing hostility to aptitude tests could lead to the more widespread use of SAT II. Study examines score gaps on the SAT II between white and minority ethnic students. Concludes that as minority ethic students are disadvantaged by poverty and poor educational environments, score gaps will continue for the foreseeable future.

SCALE OF OPERATIONS AND LOCUS OF CONTROL IN MARKET- VERSUS MISSION-ORIENTED CHARTER SCHOOLS

H. Brown and others

Social Science Quarterly, vol.85, 2004, p.1035-1051

Study compares two different types of charter schools in terms of their size and how much control resides within the school versus with outside authorities. The types of school are those run by for-profit education management organisations (EMOs) and those not run by such organisations. The study is based on a survey completed by 35% of all charter school heads in four US states. Results show that EMO charter schools are considerably larger than non-EMO charter schools. Non-EMO charter schools, on the other hand, retain more in-school autonomy in almost all areas.

SHOULD FEDERAL GOVERNMENT BE INVOLVED IN SCHOOL ACCOUNTABILITY?

E.A. Hanushek and R. Rothstein

Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, vol.24, 2005, p.167-178

Hanushek argues that:

  • educational failure undermines the economic welfare of the USA;
  • previous school improvement efforts have failed;
  • states will not spur improvement because the benefits are external (students may emigrate) and so the task should be federal;
  • recent federal accountability efforts have been successful , validating this approach.

Rothstein refutes these arguments.

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