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Welfare Reform on the Web (April 2005): Education - Overseas

EDUCATING CITIZENS: INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES ON CIVIC VALUES AND SCHOOL CHOICE

P.J. Wolf and S. Macedo

Washington D.C.: Brookings Institution, 2004

The United States is in the midst of historic experiments with public funded school choice in education. This book provides a view of how the American approach to school choice compares with that of other diverse, liberal democracies, in particular with regard to instilling civic values in students - for example, tolerance, civic cohesion and democratic values such as integration across lines of class, religion, and race. Drawing lessons is difficult here as no European nation has the U.S. racial history or legacy. Nevertheless the comparative perspective included here allows policymakers, public officials and citizens to learn from the experience of other democracies abroad.

EDUCATIONAL ENTREPRENEURIALISM IN THE PRIVATE TUTORING INDUSTRY: BALANCING PROFITABILITY WITH THE HUMANISTIC FACE OF SCHOOLING

J. Aurini

Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, vol.41, 2004, p.475-491

The school choice movement in Canada has provided fertile ground for educational entrepreneurialism, and has allowed a range of businesses such as test preparation companies, private preschools, tutoring businesses and corporate training ventures to flourish. Article presents a case study of the growth of private tutoring businesses in Ontario. Private tutoring has grown from a small cottage industry into a billion-dollar business offering full-time careers to well-educated investors. These entrepreneurs hail from a wide range of backgrounds, including business, geography, psychology and physics as well as teaching. Lacking teachers' claims to professional authority, these entrepreneurs justify their services on the grounds of marketable specialisations and ability to meet consumer demand for individualised education.

INCLUSION IN SOUTH KOREA: THE CURRENT SITUATION AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS

H. Kwon

International Journal of Disability Development and Education, vol.52, 2005, p.59-68

Special education in Korea has developed rapidly since the Special Education Promotion Act was passed in 1977. However, most special education has been offered in separate schools. Currently, there are attempts to include students with disabilities in mainstream schools. However, inclusion is being hampered by negative attitudes towards disabled people prevalent in Korean society.

LOSING VOICE?: EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT ORGANISATIONS AND CHARTER SCHOOLS' EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS

K. Bulkley

Education and Urban Society, vol.37, 2005, p.204-234

Charter schools are one form of educational decentralisation in the USA that shifts power into the hands of school stakeholders by providing them with more "voice" in day-to-day decisions. However the increasing involvement of education management organisations (EMOs) in running charter schools raises new questions about the influence of school stakeholders. Study examines the experiences of three very different EMOs and two schools operated by each company. The three EMOs varied in the extent to which they limited school stakeholder "voice".

NEW REALITIES OF SECONDARY TEACHERS' WORK LIVES: AN INTERNATIONAL COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF EDUCATIONAL CHANGE ON THE WORK LIVES OF SECONDARY TEACHERS IN NINE COUNTRIES

P. Poppleton and J. Williamson

Oxford: Symposium Books, 2004

There are many books on educational change, its origins, processes and consequences. The unique contribution of this volume lies in its documenting and reporting of the reactions of the teachers themselves, interviewed in 10 countries, to the changes they have experienced. The project set out to obtain an international picture of the changes in education which have had the greatest impact on the lives of teachers; to explore how actual and perceived changes have influenced teachers' experience and practice; and, to identify critical factors in the implementation of change.

THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF EDUCATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR GROWTH AND INEQUALITY

M. Gradstein, M. Justman and V. Meier

MIT Press, 2005

This book provides the theoretical framework necessary for understanding the political economy of education - the complex relationship of education, economic growth and income distribution - and for formulating effective policies to improve the financing and provision of education. Applying this framework to a comparison of education financing under different regimes, the authors explore:

  • fiscal decentralization;
  • individual choice between public and private schooling, including the use of education vouchers to combine public financing of education with private provision;
  • the social dimension of education, including its role in state building as the traditional "melting pot" that promotes cohesion in a culturally diverse society.

THE SAGE HANDBOOK OF EDUCATIONAL LEADERSHIP: ADVANCES IN THEORY, RESEARCH, AND PRACTICE

F.W. English (editor)

Sage Publications, 2005

This handbook represents the establishment of a new tradition in educational leadership. It covers a broad range of issues from a US perspective, including curriculum leadership, supervision, teacher evaluation, budgeting, planning, school design, principalship, and superintendency. The handbook consists of the following parts:

  • multiple lines of democratic leadership;
  • management, organization, and law;
  • educational politics and policy;
  • theories of leadership and research;
  • the micropolitics of school leadership.

RETHINKING SCHOOL PARTNERSHIPS

R. Edens and J.F. Gilsinan

Education and Urban Society, vol.37, 2005, p.123-138

Article approaches educational partnerships from two perspectives not dominant in the current literature. First it adopts an organisational perspective, analysing the participants in a partnership between a school, a corporate foundation, a college and a university in St Louis, Mo from the perspective of the institutional dynamics of each agency. Secondly, because partnerships are by definition the creation of networks, success is examined by looking at their potential to produce social capital. Social capital is here defined as dense networks of reciprocal social relations.

SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT: THEORIES AND STRATEGIES

P. Dalin

London: Continuum, 2005

The first part of this book discusses how schools can improve in the twenty-first century by providing a detailed historical review of reform in Europe and North America. It explores the dilemmas faced by decision-makers responding to pressure for change, and provides world-wide examples of attempts at decentralization. The book also gives and overview of the theoretical basis for school improvement, with particular emphasis placed on the role of the principal. The book concludes with an analysis of change strategies. Strategies are reviewed on three levels of change: individual, organizational and those which target the entire system.

"WHO SHALL BE EDUCATED?": THE CASE OF RESTRICTING REMEDIATION AT THE CITY UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK.

J.W. Richardson

Education and Urban Society, vol.37, 2005, p.174-192

The City University of New York (CUNY) historically operated an open admissions policy to encourage bright students from disadvantaged backgrounds to enter higher education. Remedial classes were offered to prepare these students for college-level academic study. CUNY's decision to phase out remedial classes restricts educational opportunity for the poor and puts its current policies at odds with its historic mission.

WHO'S IN CHARGE HERE?: THE TANGLED WEB OF SCHOOL GOVERNANCE AND POLICY

N. Epstein

Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press/Education Commission of the States, 2005

Recent changes in US primary and secondary education have resulted in a spider's web of responsibility. It is difficult, if not impossible, to figure out where accountability lies. Not only have municipal, state, and federal authorities become involved in education decision-making, but also an array of other institutions including courts, community-based organizations, and education management companies. These trends have created a growing gap between those who make education policy and those responsible for the results. What's more, they have contributed to widespread confusion about how to fix public education. This book aims to cut through the confusion to analyze key issues such as the Constitution's role in allocating responsibility for education, the pros and cons of growing federal control, the impact of the school-choice movement, and the expanding non-academic role of schools.

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