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Welfare Reform on the Web (May 2005): Education - Overseas

ARTICULATION AT WORK AMONG AUSTRALIA'S POST-COMPULSORY EDUCATION SECTORS: AN EXAMINATION OF CROSS-SECTORAL PATHWAYS INITIATIVES

R.E. Harreveld

Research in Post-Compulsory Education, vol.10, 2005, p.105-120

Articulation involves facilitation of the progression of learners between higher education and vocational training. Article explores the cross-sectoral, institutional and curriculum issues emerging from current articulation practices between Central Queensland University and a local vocational education provider.

BOLSA ESCOLA: BREAKING THE CYCLE OF POVERTY, CHILD LABOUR AND SCHOOL DISAFFECTION IN BRAZIL

C.A. Denes

International Journal of School Disaffection, vol. 2, no. 2, 2004, p.38 - 43

With levels of school enrolment lowest among the poor, a vicious circle exists where the opportunity for immediate supplemental family income from child labour leads to children being taken out of school, and thereby to decreased opportunity for future increases in earnings and standard of living afforded by educational attainment. This cycle can be broken by projects such as the Bolsa Escola programme in Brazil. This paper looks at the success and development of this ground breaking Brazilian programme, national since 2001, which targets means tested cash subsidies at families with school aged children.

CHALLENGE AND OPPORTUNITY: EDUCATING LIBERIA'S WAR AFFECTED CHILDREN IN PRIMARY GRADES

W. Weah

International Journal of School Disaffection, vol. 2, no. 2, 2005, p.44 - 48

Amongst Liberia's post war problems of security, restoring vital infrastructures, HIV/AIDs, high unemployment and illiteracy, the young population present a demand for education and sector reform. Within a framework of challenges, this article presents opportunities, gives examples of good practice and highlights the possibilities for transformation.

CHILDREN ON THE MARGINS: COMPARING THE ROLE OF SCHOOL IN ENGLAND AND FRANCE

C. Hayden and C. Blaya

Policy Studies, vol.26, 2005, p.67-83

France and England share concerns about disaffection and non-participation in school. Both countries focus on the association between being out of school, social cohesion and citizenship. A key difference lies in the role of schools and teachers in addressing these issues. There is a stronger pastoral role for schools in England, and the Blair government expects them to play a part in the reduction of social exclusion. Schools in France have a much more limited role in reducing social exclusion, and there is a stronger emphasis on family responsibility for pupil behaviour and participation.

CODE OF PRACTICE FOR THE PASTORAL CARE OF INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS: MAKING A GLOBALISING INDUSTRY IN NEW ZEALAND

N. Lewis

Globalisation, Societies and Education vol. 3, no.2, 2005, p.5 - 47

The current New Zealand administration has introduced a new "Code of Practice for the Pastoral Care of International Students" which reaches beyond welfare provisions, and further into regulation, branding, promotion and protection of exported education than previous governments have attempted. This paper examines the development and regulation of new Zealand's education export industry. It analyses the Code using a lens of "governmentality" and political economy, and looks at the augmented neo-liberal state, and neo-liberal technologies such as new managerialism, marketization, etc.

DEMOCRACY AND EDUCATION SPENDING IN AFRICA

D. Stasavage

American Journal of Political Science, vol.49, 2005, p.343-358

Article asks whether the shift to multiparty democracy in Africa has resulted in increased spending on primary education. Author argues that the need to obtain an electoral majority may have led African governments to spend more on education and to prioritise primary schools over universities within the education budget. A game theoretic model is developed to illustrate the argument, and is tested using panel data on electoral competition and education spending. Finds clear evidence that democratically elected African governments have spent more on primary education, while spending on universities appears unaffected by democratisation.

DESPERATELY SEEKING THE GLOBAL SUBJECT: INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION, CITIZENSHIP AND COSMOPOLITANISM

J. Matthews and R. Sidhu

Globalisation, Societies and Education vol. 3, no.2, 2005, p.49 - 66

Based on experiences of international education and Australian state schools, this study explores links between globalisation, international education and the development of globally oriented citizenships and subjectivities. The paper argues that, disengaged from wider discourse, driven by economic imperatives and routed in neo-liberal thinking, traditional expressions of international education perpetuate normative identities in an age when understanding intercultural sensitivities is critical to notions of global community.

DROPOUT IN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOL: A GLOBAL ISSUE AND AN OBSTACLE TO THE ACHIEVEMENT OF THE EDUCATION FOR ALL GOALS

N. Bella & H. Mputu

International Journal of School Disaffection, vol. 2, no. 2, 2004 p.14 - 30

This study, contextualised by the Dakar Framework on basic universal education beyond primary schooling and by the economic and social consequences of illiteracy, analyses transitions from primary to secondary school, and recommends cooperation between key players in drop out prevention and poverty reduction strategies. International data disaggregated by gender are included within this study which looks at the interrelation of the complex educational and environmental causes of school dropout, including issues of home life, socio-economic conditions and other cultural and gender specific matters.

EDUCATION AND PUBLIC CHOICE: A CRITICAL ACCOUNT OF THE INVISIBLE HAND IN EDUCATION

N. Devine

Westport, Conn: Praeger, 2004

The aim of this book is to demonstrate the limited form of rationality that underpins public choice in education. The book examines the theory, origin and a case study of its application to education in New Zealand. Public choice is a vigorous growth industry. It has formed a robust theoretical underpinning to a radical programme of reform since (at least) the mid-1980s in the English-speaking world. It continues to be a popular form of thought in New Zealand, despite its failure to deliver on the promised prosperity. It is seen as a necessary, almost unavoidable mode of thought for any country contemplating reform and the ideal paradigm towards which other countries should be working. The author believes that by becoming the mode of "governmentality" public choice has so permeated the way people think that to offer any other form of explanation or procedure is tantamount to declaring oneself old-fashioned or irrational. The effect of public choice policies is examined in relation to government and society (education being one of the few remaining government services available to all) and to its impact on the relationships between people within schooling - teachers, students, administrators, parents and volunteers .

EDUCATION FOR CHILDREN WITH SEVERE AND PROFOUND LEARNING DISABILITIES IN IRELAND: FACTORS INFLUENCING TEACHERS' DECISIONS ABOUT TEACHING THESE PUPILS

J. Ware, G. Julian and P. McGee

European Journal of Special Needs Education, vol.20, 2005, p.179-194

Educational provision for children with severe and profound learning difficulties in Ireland has grown in an ad hoc manner. In 1999 only about half the children in this group had access to a teacher, although provision has increased since. Additionally, many teachers of this group work on premises that are not part of the school to which the class is attached. Study used a self-report survey to investigate the perceived high turnover of teachers of these pupils. Results showed that teacher demoralisation was associated with the isolation of not being located in the main school building and not having a properly equipped classroom.

GIFTED EDUCATION IN A DEMOCRACY: REFUTING THE CRITICS

P. Jewell

Gifted Education International, vol.19, 2005, p.107-113

Gifted education is regarded by critics as being incompatible with equitable and just democratic arrangements. They describe gifted education as the process of seeking out children who are already genetically advantaged and providing them with further privileges in the form of educational benefits from which the majority of children are excluded. The author argues that gifted education is concerned with enabling individuals to realise their potential for the benefit of society.

GLOBALISATION, EDUCATION AND CULTURE SHOCK

C. Cullingford and S. Gunn

Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005

How has globalisation affected educational thought and practice? This volume presents an exploration of the impact of globalisation on education. Through a series of case studies, the authors examine the dilemmas and contradictions, as well as the new ideas and opportunities, that globalisation offers to individuals, to states and intellectual cultures. Areas covered include:

  • the effects of globalisation on individuals;
  • the contradictions embedded in the process of globalisation - especially in the economic sphere;
  • the impact on education of globalising ideas, thought and values;
  • the relationship between globalisation and culture.

GLOBALISATION AND LOCALISATION ENMESHED - TOWARDS A FRAMEWORK FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF GUIDANCE CURRICULUM IN HONG KONG

P.Y.Y. Luk-Fong

Globalisation, Societies and Education vol. 3, no.2, 2005, p.83 - 100

Drawing from western traditions and Chinese culture, and contextualised by the interface of colonisation, globalisation and local cultures in the case of Hong Kong, this paper proposes a framework for developing a hybrid guidance/personal and social education curriculum, integrated with moral education. Concepts examined include Confucian humanism, the integrated and hybrid self, yin-yang and the combination of skills and values.

THE GRAYING OF AMERICA AND SUPPORT FOR FUNDING THE NATION'S SCHOOLS

E. Plutzer and M. Berkman

Public Opinion Quarterly, vol.69, 2005, p.66-86

Conventional wisdom based on surveys over 35 years suggests that older Americans are less likely than younger citizens to endorse increased spending on state schools. It is assumed that retired people on fixed incomes with no young children have little interest in schools. Authors show that this explanation is false. They demonstrate that the generation now reaching retirement, which benefited from expanded educational opportunities in the 1960s, is highly supportive of spending on schools. These findings suggest that the predicted threat to education spending from an ageing population will not occur.

INCENTIVES IN ON-LINE EDUCATION

P. Oslington

Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, vol.27, 2005, p.97-104

Paper discusses incentives for academics and administrators in contemporary universities to teach online. It identifies three major problems with incentive structures in relation to online teaching. These problems are:

  • difficulty of verifying online teaching expertise;
  • the fact that online teaching skills tend to be institution-specific and not transferable;
  • the team nature of online teaching.

INVESTIGATING TEN YEARS OF EQUITY POLICY IN AUSTRALIAN HIGHER EDUCATION

H. Coates and K.-L. Krause

Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, vol.27, 2005, p.35-47

In the early 1990s a detailed equity policy framework was designed with the aim of reducing inequality in higher education participation. Soon after, a performance indicator system was developed to guide and support the equity policy at the national level. Indicators have been used to measure access, participation, success and retention of the designated equity groups. Paper reports on a recent longitudinal analysis of equity data for the period 1991 to 2002.

LINKS BETWEEN HIGHER EDUCATION AND EMPLOYERS IN MALAWI: THE NEED FOR A DIALOGUE

D. Hall and H. Thomas

Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, vol.27, 2005, p.67-79

Study found that links between higher education and employers in Malawi are weak. There is also evidence that higher education is not providing the quality of graduate necessary to meet the needs of the nation. Colleges specialising in post-secondary vocational education are suffering from severe resource limitations which prevent them from equipping students with the skills they need in the workplace. However, collaborative activities between higher education and employers offer the potential for mutual enrichment.

OUR GREATEST NATIONAL RESOURCE: GIFTED EDUCATION IN AUSTRALIA

M. McCann

Gifted Education International, vol.19, 2005, p.90-106

Presents a summary of the main provisions for gifted pupils in Australia. The most common involves provision of special programmes for gifted pupils in mainstream schools. Another increasingly popular option is for universities to collaborate with schools to offer enrichment programmes for gifted children and training for teachers. Goes on to summarise recent research on supporting gifted students from disadvantaged backgrounds, gifted preschoolers and gifted literacy-disabled students.

POLICY AND PRACTICE: A TWENTY YEAR RETROSPECTIVE ON GIFTED EDUCATION IN THE AUSTRALIAN STATE OF NEW SOUTH WALES

J. Forster

Gifted Education International, vol.19, 2005, p.182-196

Article analyses the implementation of the New South Wales policy for gifted education over 20 years. It considers the correspondence of policy recommendations with actual school provisions.

POLITE, WELL-DRESSED AND ON TIME: SECONDARY SCHOOL CONDUCT CODES AND THE PRODUCTION OF DOCILE CITIZENS

R. Raby

Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, vol.42, 2005, p.71-91

Article critically examines secondary school conduct codes (including dress codes) in Ontario. Argues that these school dress and discipline codes promote obedience to authority and the work ethic. They are intended to produce hard-working, docile citizens who are unlikely to challenge the status quo. Those who fail to conform are marginalised and excluded through "zero tolerance" policies.

PUBLIC SERVICE VOUCHERS

F. Colin

International Review of Administrative Sciences, vol.71, 2005, p.19-34

The "school voucher" has been defined as a certificate issued to parents or adult learners authorizing payment from public funds for educational services provided. The voucher system is designed to promote competition amongst schools, to make their service offerings more flexible and to facilitate parental choice. However it also poses certain risks and may undermine equality of opportunity and community cohesion.

RESEARCHING CLASSROOM PROCESSES OF INCLUSION AND EXCLUSION

S.E. Ohna

European Journal of Special Needs Education, vol.20, 2005, p.167-178

The Norwegian Education Act 1998, section 2-6 gives deaf children who have acquired sign language as their first language the right to tuition through the medium of sign language. At the same time, participation in the local school is a key principle of education policy in Norway. Article presents an explorative description of everyday activities in classrooms where deaf and hearing children are taught together according to Section 2-6 of the 1998 Act.

RETHINKING WELFARE SCHOOL ATTENDANCE POLICIES

D. Campbell and J. Wright

Social Service Review, vol.79, 2005, p.2-28

By 1999, 40 US states required regular school attendance as a condition of welfare cash assistance. Article summarises evidence from seven evaluations of school attendance programmes prior to the implementation of welfare reform in 1996 and presents a case study of one California county's post-welfare reform programme. Data suggest that school attendance programmes linked to cash assistance will not succeed unless supportive case management is also in place. However, the use of attendance monitoring data as an early warning signal to trigger social service interventions has merit.

TECHNICAL AND FURTHER EDUCATION (TAFE) HEAD TEACHERS: THEIR CHANGING ROLE

A. Rice

Rsearch in Post-Compulsory Education, vol.10. 2005, p.39-56

The position of head teacher in TAFE in Australia is undergoing radical change driven by government initiatives. Much of the traditional role of the head teacher in terms of providing educational leadership is being pushed aside and replaced by administrative duties. Study found that head teachers are preoccupied with routine administration and crisis management, with little time for strategic thinking or effective business management.

THE WEAKNESS OF UNIVERSITY LEGISLATIVE BODIES: THE CASES OF FRANCE AND ITALY

S. Boffo and P. Dubois

International Review of Administrative Sciences, vol.71, 2005, p.35-54

The law in France and Italy compels universities to separate executive functions (assumed by the Président or the Rettore) from the legislative function (fulfilled by one or more councils). In theory these councils constitute the most powerful organ of government within universities, but in practice their powers are limited. This weakness results from their heterogeneous composition, the fact that they are unable to reverse the decisions of faculty councils, and the spread of a presidential model of governance. Article describes eight ways in which the Président or Rettore can dominate the institution. Article asks whether this presidential style of government which has grown up should be institutionalised.

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