Click here to skip to content

Welfare Reform on the Web (October 2005): Education - Overseas

Achieving accountability in higher education: balancing public, academic and market demands

J.C. Burke

San Fransisco, Calif: Jossey-Bass, 2005

In an era and economy driven by knowledge and information, accountability becomes of ever increasing importance. With contributions from leading experts in the field, this book presents the principles and guidelines for effective accountability for states, colleges and universities in the United States. The book examines the most recent developments, offers current models for each of the major approaches to accountability and analyses their shortcomings.

AILEM Programme: a long term intervention to promote literacy learning in low-performing primary schools in Chile

M.V.Bravo and others

Early Years, vol.25, 2005, p.97-111

Despite the prioritisation of education and equitable growth, learning achievement in government funded schools has been poor despite extensive reforms, refurbishments and initiatives aimed nationally and at poor areas. Reading and writing achievement relates positively however to the implementation of a learning instruction framework and teachers' perceptions of their own increased knowledge following intensive, school based training in the theory and practice of literacy learning. This paper describes a programme in kindergarten and first grade schools in poor sectors of Santiago.

The birth of Head Start: preschool education policies in the Kennedy and Johnson administrations

M.A. Vinovskis

Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005

One of the most popular and enduring legacies of President Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society programmes, project Head Start continues to support close to one million young children of low-income families annually by providing a range of developmental and educational services. However debates over the function and scope of this programme persist. This review of the intentions of Head Start is a starting point for anyone who hopes to understand the evolution of the programme.

Choice without markets: homeschooling in the context of private education

J. Aurini and S. Davies

British Journal of Sociology of Education, vol.26, 2005, p.461-474

Homeschooling is growing markedly across North America, and is enjoying a new level of legitimacy and attracting more mainstream followers. Article reviews three orthodox sociological explanations of this trend that focus on the rise of neo-liberal ideology, human capital requirements and the pressures of class reproduction. Finally authors argue that the current popularity of homeschooling arises from a desire among parents to remove children from market settings and provide individually tailored education programmes that reflect their personal values.

Determinants of rural-urban variability in the implementation of educational decentralisation programmes in developing countries: the Nigeria experience

P.O. Ikoya and O.V. Ikoya

Journal of Educational Administration, vol.43, 2005, p.500-519

Using data from observed physical facilities, official national and regional education statistics, and interviews with community leaders, study revealed that implementation of decentralised educational management was lower in rural than urban communities because:

  • Political leaders have been more favourably disposed to decentralisation of educational management functions to urban communities
  • Consequently, more funds were allocated to urban than rural and suburban communities
  • Structures to support decentralised management of education were underdeveloped in rural areas.
  • Urban communities were more favourably disposed to decentralisation than rural communities.

Governance of early childhood education and care: recent developments in OECD countries

M.J. Neuman

Early Years, vol.25, 2005, p.129 - 141

While OECD countries have developed coordinated policies on early childhood services, different approaches to system governance have evolved. The article examines the nature and importance of governance for early years education, and reports on a comparative study of 12 countries, highlighting issues for further research. Highlights cross national trends and developments, and key policy areas in which OECD countries differ, including the variety of central government departments involved in policy making, divisions between education and care policy responsibilities, private sector involvement, decentralisation and the roles of parents and teachers as stakeholders in policy making.

Quality early childhood education in Costa Rica? Policy, practice, outcomes and challenges

A.R. San Francisco, M. Arias and R. Villers

Early Years, vol.25, 2005, p.113 - 127

Appropriate teacher training and practice are needed in Costa Rica where, data suggest, children show limited progress in literacy skills and language development at the end of kindergarten. The paper, including class room observations on educational practice, looks at the attainment of low-income children in Costa Rica in the context of pre-school policy history, and the importance of quality early childhood education to later educational achievement.

'Re-culturing' students and selling futures: school-to-work policy in Ontario

A. Taylor

Journal of Education and Work, vol.18, 2005, p.321-340

The discussion highlights concerns voiced by interview participants about the school-to-work transition policy introduced in Ontario in the late 1990s. Although policy-makers claimed to admire the corporatist systems of VET in countries like Germany, they introduced neo-Fordist reforms in Ontario which perpetuate a market system. Programmes rely on voluntary partnerships co-ordinated by brokers between schools and employers. However, the schools lack stability, incentives and resources to engage in effective partnerships, and employers show little interest in providing training opportunities. Secondly, government has paid lip-service to enhancing opportunities for all students, while introducing reforms which have lowered graduation rates and attempted to reduce the expectations of non-college-bound youth.

Riding the wave of administrator accountability: a portfolio approach

M. Johnston and M. Thomas

Journal of Educational Administration, vol.43, 2005, p.368-386

Paper describes a qualitative study of a four-year state-wide portfolio evaluation system for new head teachers. The State of Ohio was one of five states that participated in a field test of the system. Results provide evidence that portfolios can be used to support the professional development of novice head teachers. The study also indicates the kind of social and professional support needed to make this work. However, if a state is only interested in whether a head teacher reaches minimum competency standards, there are far easier and less cumbersome tools that could be used.

Teacher appraisal: the experiences of Kenyan secondary school teachers

G.O. Odhiambo

Journal of Educational Administration, vol.43, 2005, p.402-416

In the past, teacher appraisal in Kenyan secondary schools has been mainly carried out on an occasional basis by school inspectors. However, head teachers and heads of department are increasingly playing leading roles in appraisal. Results of a qualitative study of appraisal in six schools reveal weaknesses in the system, which need to be addressed if teacher appraisal is to be used as a tool for school improvement. Study suggests that:

  • Appraisers, especially head teachers, should work together with staff to improve the current system
  • An element of self-appraisal should be included in the process
  • Appraisal should be linked to opportunities for professional development
  • There needs to be an agreed definition of what constitutes good teaching
  • Processes need to be more open and more focussed on target setting
  • More training in performance management is required.

Total quality management in education. 2nd ed.

M. Mukhopadhyay

London: Sage, 2005

This is a revised version of a text first published in 2001. It incorporates the author's experience of the actual implementation of TQM in various educational establishments in India. The author has adapted the TQM philosophy and methodology and anchored it in the Indian cultural ethos.

Towards a qualifications framework for lifelong learning: Commission staff working document

Commission of the European Communities

Brussels: 2005

This consultation is on a proposal for a European Qualifications Framework (EQF). The EQF is designed to be a meta-framework; that is, a framework that sits above national qualification frameworks and enables them to relate to each other. Its aim is to act as a translation device between qualifications obtained in different countries, thereby facilitating the transfer and recognition of qualifications of individual citizens between member states. The EQF is designed to be implemented on a voluntary basis, and will not create any legal obligations on Member States. At the core of the EQF is a set of common reference points, located in a structure of eight levels that are based on learning outcomes. These levels will form the basis of mapping qualifications across different member states. Qualifications at each level are described in terms of typical learning outcomes that can be related to qualifications and qualification frameworks, rather than inputs.

Who gets an early education? Family income and enrollment of three- to five-year-olds from 1968 to 2000

J. Bainbridge and others

Social Science Quarterly, vol.86, 2005, p.724-745

Using the US October Current Population Survey education supplement, authors look at three- to five-year-olds' enrolment in early education, including centre-based care, Head Start, nursery school, prekindergarten and kindergarten. Analysis shows that inequality in early education by income group varies with the age of the child. It is most pronounced for three-year-olds, who have been least likely to benefit from public early education programmes, but has diminished in the past decade for four-year-olds who have been increasingly likely to have access to public prekindergarten programmes. It has all but disappeared for five-year-olds who now largely attend public kindergarten.

Search Welfare Reform on the Web