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Welfare Reform on the Web (October 2005): Social Security - Overseas

The empty cradle: how falling birthrates threaten world prosperity (and what to do about it)

P. Longman

New York: Basic Books, 2005

An unprecedented fall in fertility rates over the last thirty years is now spreading to all parts of the globe. The author's solution to the problems of falling fertility and population aging is to cut Social Security taxes for parents who provide the system with future taxpayers.

Family self-sufficiency programs: an evaluation of program benefits and factors’ affecting participants’ success

J. Anthony

Urban Affairs Review, vol.64, no.1, 2005, p.65-92

These programmes have been set up in over 1,000 cities in the United States and aim to help welfare-dependent public housing residents and Section 8 tenants become economically self-sufficient and move into private housing. Article reports research on the impact of the City of Rockford, Illinois's Family Self-Sufficiency Programme on 135 participants. Results show that people aged between 25 and 40, single people, people with a high school diploma, people with higher incomes at entry and the people who gained the most skills from the programme benefited most from participation.

The impact of welfare reform on the parenting role of women in rural communities

D.A. Henderson, A.R. Tickamyer and B.L. Tadlock

Journal of Children and Poverty, vol.11, 2005, p.131-147

Current family policy in the USA suggests that in order to restore traditional family values, full time mothering needs to be encouraged. However, current welfare policy is at odds with this ideal in that it requires mothers to leave public assistance for work. In-depth interviews with female welfare recipients in four rural Appalachian counties show that, while many women strive to be "good mothers" as defined by current social standards, they often cannot carry out the role effectively because of welfare reform regulations.

Rural and urban differences in welfare exits: Minnesota evidence 1986-1996

D.P. Hirasuna and T.F. Stinson

Growth and Change, vol.36, 2005, p.395-427

This study finds substantial differences in episode duration and probability of exiting Aid to Families with Dependent Children between recipients in urban and rural counties. The results indicate that parents within farming-dependent counties exhibit a higher probability of exit than those in rural conglomerate counties and those in all rural counties have a higher probability of exit than those in urban counties. The evidence appears consistent with the literature on rural low-income families in that there may be a concentration of low wage jobs in rural counties. Findings of this study suggest ways in which the current Temporary Aid to Needy Families system could be improved.

Women who succeeded in leaving public assistance for a living-wage job

K.A. Gray

Qualitative Social Work, vol.4, 2005, p.309-326

Many women who leave welfare for work in the USA simply join the ranks of the working poor. This article examines findings from in-depth interviews with women who successfully left public assistance for a living-wage job. The respondents suggested that access to job training and financial support from family and friends were necessary for women to obtain and maintain a living wage job.

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