R. Munford and J. Sanders
Community Development Journal, vol. 42, 2007, p. 317-329
This paper explores the ways in which local authority planning processes can be used to either exclude or draw young people into community life. It considers two projects concerned with the development of community facilities in a city in New Zealand. The first project involved removing, without consultation, trees and raised sheltered areas from a park in order to discourage marginalised teenage girls form congregating there and intimidating passers-by. The second project successfully involved these same teenagers in discussions about the development of a community centre and enabled them to articulate their needs in dialogue with the local authority.
L. Marais and L. Botes
Community Development Journal, vol. 42, 2007, p. 379-395
The introduction of the notion of developmental local government as entrenched in the South African constitution of 1994 has required municipalities to consider strategies and programmes to enhance their local economies. In response, the Free State provincial government created various projects to develop local economies and to establish income-generating projects with a view to alleviating poverty, creating jobs and promoting self-reliance. This article aims to evaluate these income-generating projects from the perspective of business principles. It argues that players in the public and private sectors, including consultants, lack the capacity to think and plan in terms of business principles, thus thwarting the government’s plans for embarking on these as a mechanism to enhance the long-term development of impoverished communities.
Politics and Society, vol. 35, 2007, p. 329-359
This article compares two community economic development projects in deprived areas in Oakland, California, 'Fruitvale' and 'Mandela'. Significant differences exist between the two projects and the community development corporations that shaped them. The Fruitvale project has developed practices and mechanisms that facilitate significant levels of citizen participation and that promote the valorisation of neighbourhood values. The Mandela project tends to align itself with private investment interests and blunt community control of development initiatives in pursuit of neighbourhood exchange values. Initial evidence suggests that these competing models are correlated with divergent socioeconomic outcomes. While Mandela suffers from deprivation of social services and significant levels of class-based displacement, the Fruitvale community enjoys extensive social service provision and has protected itself from the pernicious effects of gentrification.