Explore key works of 19th-century classical music and discover the social, political and cultural contexts in which they were written. We are launching this space in 2020 with a collection of articles on the composer Ludwig van Beethoven to mark the 250th anniversary of his birth.


Beethoven's sketches and the creative process

Beethoven’s Sketches and the Creative Process

Barry Cooper discusses Beethoven's creative process as revealed by the musical sketches of his works.

Read more
Beethoven, Bridgetower, and the Kreutzer violin sonata banner image

Beethoven, Bridgetower, and the ‘Kreutzer’ Violin Sonata

Laura Tunbridge writes about the origins and first performance of Beethoven’s ‘Kreutzer’ Violin Sonata.

Read more
Beethoven and Handel banner image

Beethoven’s favourite composer: George Frideric Handel

David Wyn Jones writes about Beethoven’s admiration of Handel's music and its presence in the musical life of Vienna.

Read more
Beethoven and nature banner image

Beethoven and nature: exploring the ‘Pastoral’ Symphony

Mark Berry explores Beethoven’s ‘Pastoral’ Symphony and the work's evocation of the natural world in sound, gesture and association.

Read more


Discover composers, performers and conductors of the 19th century


Explore key musical works of the 19th century

Symphony no. 6 in F major, op. 68 ‘Pastoral’

Created by: Ludwig van Beethoven

Beethoven composed his sixth symphony, entitled ‘Pastoral Symphony, or Recollections of Country Life’, ...

Symphony no. 9 in D minor, op. 125

Created by: Ludwig van Beethoven

Widely considered the crowning achievement of Beethoven’s life, the Ninth Symphony stretched the ...

Violin Concerto in D major, op. 61

Created by: Ludwig van Beethoven

The Violin Concerto in D major op. 61 is Beethoven’s only major work for solo violin and orchestra. It ...