Lexical change in the English language
If you overheard the following statement you might be able to make a pretty accurate estimate of the speaker’s age:
we couldn’t listen to the latest tunes because we hadn't wireless
From the word wireless, we would probably assume this statement was made by an older person, as radio is now the more common term. Lexical change refers to a change in the meaning or use of a word, or a generational shift in preference for one word or phrase over another. Lexical change is probably the most frequent type of language change and certainly the easiest to observe. For instance, we can make confident assertions about the age of a speaker who uses the word courting to mean 'going out with', or one who uses the adjective fit to describe someone they find attractive.
New vocabulary or changes in fashionable usage spread rapidly and evenly across the country due to our sophisticated communication links. Intriguingly, in the case of wireless, the word has experienced something of a revival. If you hear the word wireless used by a younger speaker, they are almost certainly using it as an adjective rather than a noun and referring to wireless technology, from broadband to routers and smartphones.
This illustrates perfectly how words can virtually disappear or gradually shift in meaning and usage.
Listen to these extracts of older speakers using vocabulary we might now consider a little outdated.
you heard it on the wireless at the time, but you couldn’t never see it like you do on the television now
wireless: short for wireless set (British usage); largely superseded by radio except in historical contexts. First cited 1927.
radio: set for receiving organised wireless broadcasting in sound (originally US usage). First cited 1913.
wireless Internet: connection to the Internet that does not depend on wires to carry the signals. First cited 1994; see also Wi-Fi: facility allowing computers, smartphones, or other devices to connect to the Internet or communicate with one another wirelessly within a particular area. First cited 1999.
the, the entertainment there, of course, was the pictures or, uhm, a dance, which, the main dance was at The Pavilion
the showing of a film in a cinema; always with the and in plural (British usage). First cited 1915.
short for cinema hall; a building in which films are shown. First cited 1914.
the screening of motion pictures in a cinema; always with the and in plural (originally North American usage). First cited 1914.
and my mother and father slept down in a parlour downstairs
main family living room or room reserved for entertaining guests; sitting room; ‘best’ room. First cited 1448.
that was nineteen, the end of nineteen-sixty-nine, and, uh, we got married in seventy-one, so we were only really courting about, seriously I suppose twelve months, really
court: to pay amorous attention to, to seek to gain the affections of, to woo (with a view to marriage); now only homely or poetic use. First cited 1580.
go out with: no entry in OED.
date: to make or have an arrangement to meet someone; specifically to do so in the context of romantic attachment (originally colloquial US usage). First cited 1902.
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