Social variation across the UK
If you overheard the following statement, the pronunciation of the word wearing might give subtle clues about the social status of the speaker or the relative formality of the conversation:
Making speech fit the situation
All native speakers adjust their speech patterns depending on context: from relaxed conversation in familiar surroundings to a more formal setting. Most of us have been accused of having a ‘telephone voice’. We all have a range of different voices – for talking to children, talking to friends in the pub, making a presentation or talking to a foreigner and we modify our speech accordingly. In most cases, the changes we make are extremely subtle but nonetheless noticeable, and a perfectly natural way of making the people we are talking to feel at ease. Often this process is subconscious and we are simply expressing a shared identity or group solidarity or attempting to present a certain image. However, the range of any given speaker’s repertoire is defined by who he or she is. People from different geographical places speak differently, but even within the same small community, people might speak differently according to their age, gender, ethnicity and social or educational background.
Listen to these extracts of speakers using features of informal spoken English.
ING with [n]
and now I’ve moved on: I’m working for The Family Planning Association as a Peer Educator. Uhm, and I don’t know what I’m going to be doing next, you know, so I’m, I’m always on the look-out for different challenges
Interestingly, in the Midlands and North West of England many speakers also pronounce the <g> sound in all words where <ng> is present in the spelling, including nouns like singer and hanger and verbs like banging and ringing. Unlike other localised pronunciations, this is considered highly prestigious locally and thus unites speakers from a very wide range of backgrounds in an area that extends from Liverpool, Greater Manchester and Sheffield in the north through to Stoke-on-Trent and Birmingham in the Midlands. Elsewhere in the UK you might also hear informal pronunciations of the pronouns anything, nothing, something and everything with a <k> sound as the final consonant.
Listen to the recordings featured on this site for other examples of this variable.
so it’s nice, you know: my younger brother hasn’t got no children, but that’s, that’s his decision
Multiple negatives were considered perfectly acceptable in most forms of early and Middle English, as is illustrated by the triple negatives in Chaucer’s description of the Friar in The Canterbury Tales – ‘there nas no man nowher so vertuous’ – and in Viola’s description of her heart in Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night – ‘Nor never none / Shall mistress of it be, save I alone’. Although modern Standard English speakers studiously avoid such constructions, multiple negatives thrive in most non-standard dialects of English, often serving to intensify or enhance the negative impact of a statement. Al Jolson’s famous line in The Jazz Singer in 1927 – ‘you ain’t heard nothin’ yet’ – and Ronald Reagan’s taunt at the Republican National Convention in 1992 – ‘you ain’t seen nothin’ yet’ – would have carried far less force had they been expressed in Standard English.
Listen to the following recordings featured on this site for other examples of multiple negation: Kniveton, Portesham, Burnley, Birkenhead, Melksham, Milland and Stonehaven.
you see we have a bond; we have a bond down here that, uh, whatever happens, we’ll still turn up trumps if anybody is sick or if there’s a bereavement.
Most speakers do not always pronounce the <h> in high frequency grammatical words, such as he, him and her other than in extremely careful speech. Sometimes speakers prone to H-dropping consciously seek to avoid it in formal situations and end up inserting an <h> inappropriately, resulting in oft-caricatured pronunciations such as honest with the <h> intact, or statements such as what an orrible hexperience. This phenomenon is known as hypercorrection, and might explain the increasingly common pronunciation of the letter h (aitch) as if it were haitch.
Listen to the following recordings featured on this site for other examples of H-dropping: Leeds, Burnley, Nottingham, Banbury, Hackney and Maerdy.
I go out and, like, my mum, I don’t know, sits at home watching telly or she goes round to clean the Community Centre or she goes to my grandma’s or, but, like, me and my mate go swimming and that
Listen to the following recordings featured on this site for other examples of T-glottaling: Withernsea, Norwich, Canterbury, Plymouth, Bethesda and Glasgow.
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