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Detailed record for Additional 42131

Title Psalter and Hours, use of Sarum (the 'Bedford Psalter and Hours')
Origin England, S. E. (Westminster or London)
Date c. 1414 and 1422
Language Latin
Script Gothic
Artists Herman Scheerre
Decoration 11 large historiated initials in colours and gold with full borders, at the beginning of major Psalm divisions (ff. 7, 37, 46, 73, 95, 109, 122, 135, 151v, 166v, 183) anf 7 smaller historiated initials in colours and gold with full borders, at the beginning of each hour (ff. 12v, 21v, 24v, 26v, 28, 30, 33). 298 initials in colours with human heads. Three-sided borders in colours framing the text.
Dimensions in mm 450 x 275 (235 x 150)
Official foliation ix + 240 (ff. iii, vi, vii, viii and 237-240 are medieval parchment flyleaves; ff. v and ix are paper book plates pasted on ff, vi and vii; f. iv is not extant; + 2 unfoliated modern parchment flyleaves at the beginningnand 2 at the end; ff. 45v, 72r-v, 237-240 are blank).
Collation i6 (ff. 1-6); ii8-1 (ff. 7-13); iii-ix8 (ff. 14-69); x3 (ff. 70-72); xi-xxxii8 (73-240), with catchwords, in one cursive hand. First four leaves of each gathering mostly numbered i-iv. Gatherings signed as follows: ii-vi, a-e (preceded by the symbol ); vii-x, [a]-d (preceded by a cross +); xi-xxxi (item 3), a-x (l repeated). Another series of 15th-century signatures, b-j, placed on the first, second, or third leaves of alternate quires, survives between ff. 73 and 178 (gatherings xi-xxiv).
Form Parchment codex
Binding BM/BL in-house binding. Parts of the original binding are stored separately as Add MS 42131/1.
Provenance Herman Scheerre [Scheere, Skereueyn] (fl. c. 1388- c. 1422), perhaps to be identified with Herman of Cologne who worked for Duke William of Guelders (c. 1388-1389) and Philip the Bold, duke of Burgundy in Dijon (1401-1403), partialy illuminated by him: inscribed 'Herman your meke servant' (f. 124), and 'I am Herman your owne seruant' (f. 232v).
John [John of Lancaster], duke of Bedford (b. 1389, d. 1435), regent of France from 1422 and prince, made for him: inscribed 'I commende me unto yow. I pray god save the Duke of Bedford' (f. 21); his arms, crest, badges of an eagle and yale, and his motto reading 'pur souffrir' (f. 73) .
Mary Fitzlewis, wife of Anthony Wydeville (b. c.1440, d. 1483), 2nd earl Rivers, son of Jacquetta of Luxemburg (d. 1472), John of Bedford's widow: addition to the calendar 'maria fitz loys Nat. in iii Kalend. Junii. A[nn]o d[omi]ni m ccccxvii' (30 May 1467] (f. 3v).
William Catesby (b. in or before 1446, d. 1485), royal councillor and executors of Anthony Wydeville's will, probably acquired by him after Wydeville's execution in 1483: his arms (quarterly Catesby, Cranford, Lodbrooke, and Bishopston, sometimes impaling his wife Margaret, quaterly Zouche and Cantelupe) (ff. 7,. 73, 95, 109, 122, 135, 151v, 166v, 183); included in the inventory of Catesby's goods made in December 1484 and received by John Strete, his servant (Public Record Office E. 154/2/4): 'Item a grete primer and a sawter covered with blewe damask: ch Rewe'.
Edward Weld (b. 1741, d. 1775), landowner, of Lulworth Castle, Dorset: armorial bookplate (f. ix).
Thomas Weld (b. 1750, d. 1810), landowner and benefactor, of Lulworth Castle, Dorset: armorial bookplate (f. v)
The Weld family, sold by them at Sotheby's, London on 29 July 1929, lot. 11; purchased by the British Museum for £33,000, with the assistance of the National Art Collections Fund and a loan from John Pierpoint Morgan (b. 1837, d.1913), financier.
Notes Full digital coverage available for this manuscript: see Digitised Manuscripts at http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts.
Originally the manuscript was sewn on nine pairs of thongs and bound in 15th-century binding of white leather on wooden boards (beech and oak) with fragments of a 14th-century Italian manuscript of St Thomas Aquinas, Secunda secundae Summae Theologiae, used as pastedowns; re-covered, with red velvet, in the late 17th century (?), with ten parchment strips, cut from 15th and 16th- 17th-century legal documents pasted across the spine between the bands; and ff. iii and 240 are pasted to the boards and covered with marbled paper (one of which is numbered f. x; incised silver clasps.
The portraits of a man with a white beard on ff. 34v, 35,,46v, 55, 56v, 90v,115,120,149v have been identified as John Gower, of a tonsured monk on ff. 118, 199 and 206 as Hoccleve and those of a man in a cap on ff. 16, 34, 51v as Geoffrey Chaucer by Sylvia Wright,('The author portraits' (1992), fig. 5). The king on f. 210 is Richard II, according to Wright.
Select bibliography Eric G. Millar, 'Fresh Materials for the Study of English Illumination', in Studies in Art and Literature for Belle da Costa Greene, ed. by Dorothy Miner (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1954), pp. 286-94 (pp. 293-94).

Margaret Rickert, 'Herman the Illuminator', Burlington Magazine, 46 (1935), 39-40 (p. 40).

Charles L. Kuhn, 'Herman Scheerre and English Illumination of the Early Fifteenth Century', Art Bulletin, 22 (1940), 138-56 (pp. 140, 149).

Margaret Rickert, 'The So-Called Beaufort Hours and York Psalter', The Burlington Magazine, 104 (1962), pp. 238-46 (p. 245).

D. H. Turner, ‘Bedford Hours and Psalter’, Apollo, 76 (1962), 265-70.

Illuminated Manuscripts Exhibited in the Grenville Library (London, British Museum, 1967), no. 32.

Janet Backhouse, The Illuminated Manuscript (Oxford: Phaidon, 1979), pl. 53.

Richard Marks and Nigel Morgan, The Golden Age of English Manuscript Painting 1200-1500 (London, 1981), pl. 33, 34.

J. J. G. Alexander, 'Painting and Manuscript Illumination for Royal Patrons in the Later Middle Ages', in English Court Culture in the Later Middle Ages, ed. by V. J. Scattergood and J. W. Sherborne (London: Duckworth, 1983), pp. 141-62 (p. 150, fig. 1).

James McKinnon, ‘The Late Medieval Psalter: Liturgical or Gift Book?’, Musica Disciplina, 38, Aspects of Music in Church, Court and Town from the Thirteenth to the Fifteenth Century (1984), 133-57 (pp. 137-38, fig. 5).

Jenny Stradford, 'The Manuscripts of John, Duke of Bedford: Library and Chapel', in England in the Fifteenth Century: Proceedings of 1986 Harlaxton Symposium, ed. by D. Williams (Woodbridge, 1987), pp. 329-50 (p. 342).

Susie Vertongen, 'Herman Scheerre, The Beaufort Master and the Flemish Miniature Painting: A Reopened Dabate', in Flanders in a European Perspective: Manuscript Illumination around 1400, Flanders and Abroad: Proceedings of the International Colloquium, Leuven, 7-10 September 1993, ed. by Maurits Smeyers and Bert Cardon (Leuven, 1995), 251-65 (p. 257).

Kathleen L. Scott, Later Gothic Manuscripts 1390-1490 Survey of Manuscripts Illuminated in the British Isles, 6 (Harvey Miller: London, 1996), no. 54.

C. Paul Christianson, ‘Evidence for the Study of London’s Late Medieval Manuscript-Book Trade’, in Book Production and Publishing in Britain 1375-1475, ed. by Jeremy Griffiths and Derek Pearsall (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), 87-108 (p. 107 n. 44).

Kathleen L. Scott, ‘Design, Decoration and Illustration’, in Book Production and Publishing in Britain 1375-1475 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989), pp. 31-64 (p. 54 n. 7, pl. 5b).

Sylvia Wright, 'The author portraits in the Bedford Psalter-Hours: Gower, Chaucer and Hoccleve', British Library Journal, 18 (1992), 190-202 (p. 190).

Janet Backhouse, The Sherborne Missal (London: British Library, 1999), p. 41.

The Cambridge History of the Book in Britain (Cambridge: University Press, 1999- ), III: 1400-1557, ed. by Lotte Hellinga and J. B. Trapp (1999), p. 61.

Kathleen Scott, 'The Illustration and Decoration of the Register of the Fraternity of the Holy Trinity at Luton Church, 1475-1546', in The English Medieval Book: Studies in Memory of Jeremy Griffiths, ed. by A. S. G. Edwards, Vincent Gillespie and Ralph Hanna (London: British Library, 2000), pp. 155-83 (p. 178).

Gothic Art for England 1400-1547, ed. by Richard Marks and Paul Williamson (London: V and A Publications, 2003), no. 73, pp. 16, 180, pl. 97 [exhibition catalogue].

Alessandra Petrina, Cultural politics in fifteenth-century England: the case of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester( Leiden: Brill, 2004), pp. 96, 166.

Kathleen Scott, 'Scribal Activity in English Manuscripts c. 1400-c. 1490: A mirror of the craft?', in Pen in Hand: Medieval Scribal Portraits, Colophons and Tools, ed. by Michael Gullick (Walkern, Herts: Red Gull Press, 2006), pp. 115-49 (p. 130, fig. 28, no. 21).

Scot McKendrick, John Lowden, and Kathleen Doyle, Royal Manuscripts: The Genius of Illumination (London: British Library, 2011), no. 26, pp. 53, 56, 152, 165, 398 [exhibition catalogue].


Images
* * *
 
Armorial bookplate of Thomas Weld

f. vi
Armorial bookplate of Thomas Weld
January

f. 1
January
February

f. 1v
February
 
March

f. 2
March
April

f. 2v
April
May

f. 3
May
 
June

f. 3v
June
July

f. 4
July
August

f. 4v
August
 
September

f. 5
September
October

f. 5v
October
November

f. 6
November
 
December

f. 6v
December
Annunciation

f. 7
Annunciation
Annunciation

f. 7
Annunciation
 
Crowned woman

f. 8
Crowned woman
Christ

f. 8v
Christ
Head of the Virgin and a head of a queen

f. 10v
Head of the Virgin and a head of a queen
 
Head of a woman

f. 11
Head of a woman
Heads of a pope and a cardinal

f. 11v
Heads of a pope and a cardinal
Prayer in Gethsemane

f. 12v
Prayer in Gethsemane
 
Heads of two boys

f. 14
Heads of two boys
Heads of two Seraphim

f. 15
Heads of two Seraphim
Chaucer

f. 16
Chaucer
 
Text page

f. 17
Text page
Inhabited initials

f. 20v
Inhabited initials
Heads of God the Father and Christ

f. 21
Heads of God the Father and Christ
 
Kiss of Judas

f. 21v
Kiss of Judas
Inhabited initial

f. 24
Inhabited initial
Christ before the emperor

f. 24v
Christ before the emperor
 
Christ carrying the Cross

f. 26v
Christ carrying the Cross
Crucifixion

f. 28
Crucifixion
Inhabited initial

f. 29
Inhabited initial
 
Descent from the Cross

f. 30
Descent from the Cross
Inhabited initial

f. 32v
Inhabited initial
Entombment of Christ

f. 33
Entombment of Christ
 
Chaucer

f. 34
Chaucer
Old man

f. 34v
Old man
Hours of the Virgin

f. 35
Hours of the Virgin
 
Christ's Resurrection

f. 37
Christ's Resurrection
Resurrected Christ

f. 37
Resurrected Christ
Penitential Psalms

f. 38
Penitential Psalms
 
Inhabited initial

f. 42
Inhabited initial
Two monks

f. 45
Two monks
Office of the Dead

f. 46
Office of the Dead
 
Office of the Dead

f. 46
Office of the Dead
John Gower

f. 46v
John Gower
Virgin Mary

f. 48v
Virgin Mary
 
Chaucer

f. 51v
Chaucer
Office of the Dead

f. 55
Office of the Dead
John Gower

f. 56v
John Gower
 
Inhabited initial

f. 64
Inhabited initial
Inhabited initial

f. 67
Inhabited initial
Inhabited initial

f. 68
Inhabited initial
 
Head of a nun

f. 69v
Head of a nun
Skeleton

f. 70v
Skeleton
Heads of two boys

f. 71v
Heads of two boys
 
Beatus page and Tree of Jesse

f. 73
Beatus page and Tree of Jesse
Beatus page and Tree of Jesse

f. 73
Beatus page and Tree of Jesse
Anointing of David

f. 73
Anointing of David
 
Head of a young king

f. 74
Head of a young king
Head of Christ

f. 76
Head of Christ
Head of God the Father

f. 77v
Head of God the Father
 
Inhabited initial

f. 83
Inhabited initial
John Gower

f. 90v
John Gower
Christ

f. 93
Christ
 
David and the lion

f. 95
David and the lion
King's head

f. 100
King's head
David and Goliath

f. 109
David and Goliath
 
David and Goliath

f. 109
David and Goliath
Head of a king

f. 116
Head of a king
Hoccleve

f. 118
Hoccleve
 
Head of a man

f. 119
Head of a man
John Gower

f. 120
John Gower
David and Goliath

f. 122
David and Goliath
 
David and Goliath

f. 122
David and Goliath
Text page

f. 124
Text page
Saul and David

f. 135
Saul and David
 
Saul and David

f. 135
Saul and David
John Gower

f. 149v
John Gower
Marriage

f. 151v
Marriage
 
Marriage of David and Michal

f. 151v
Marriage of David and Michal
Text page

f. 155v
Text page
Inhabited initial

f. 165
Inhabited initial
 
Historiated initial

f. 166v
Historiated initial
Historiated initial

f. 166v
Historiated initial
Old man's head

f. 167v
Old man's head
 
Bearded man's head

f. 168v
Bearded man's head
David playing the harp

f. 183
David playing the harp
David playing the harp

f. 183
David playing the harp
 
Inhabited initial

f. 184
Inhabited initial
Inhabited initial

f. 194
Inhabited initial
Hoccleve

f. 199
Hoccleve
 
Two monks

f. 203
Two monks
Hoccleve

f. 206
Hoccleve
John Gower

f. 209v
John Gower
 
Richard II

f. 210
Richard II
King in chainmail

f. 211
King in chainmail
Head of a man

f. 217v
Head of a man
 
Head of a tonsured man

f. 218v
Head of a tonsured man
Two kings

f. 225
Two kings
Landscape

f. 226
Landscape
 
Head of the Virgin Mary

f. 227v
Head of the Virgin Mary
Head of a king

f. 230v
Head of a king
Text page

f. 231
Text page
 
Text page

f. 232v
Text page
Inhabited initials

f. 235v
Inhabited initials

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