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Detailed record for Additional 11695

ff. 1-4v 
Title Antiphoner (fragment)
 
ff. 5v-217v 
Author Beatus of Liébana
Title Commentary on the Apocalypse (The 'Silos Apocalypse'; 'Silos Beatus') (New Testament, Bible)
 
ff. 218-219v 
Author Isidore of Seville
Title Excerpts from the Etymologies including a table of kinship
 
ff. 220r-266r 
Author Jerome
Title Commentary on Daniel
 
ff.268r-279v 
Title Miscellaneous texts, some attributed to Jerome, Gregory and Augustine
 
Origin Spain, N.
Date 4th quarter of the 10th century
Language Latin
Script Visigothic minuscule
Artists Petrus of Santo Domingo de Silos (miniature added on f. 2 during the 1109 illustration campaign of the Beatus's commentary)
Decoration One full-page miniature in colours with a four-lobed frame in red, green and blue (f. 2r) and 2 full-page Oviedo Crosses in colours (ff. 2v, 3v). 2 full-page initials (ff. 4r, 4v) and one large initial (f. 1r) in colours with interlace decoration. Small initials and monograms in red or blue.
Dimensions in mm 380 x 245 (300 x 200)
Official foliation ff. 279 ( and f. 32*) [f. 32 duplicated in foliation]
Form Parchment codex
Binding Post-1600. Green leather over board, early 19th century. Gilt fore edges.
Provenance Produced at the Benedictine monastery of Santo Domingo de Silos: begun under Abbot Fortunio, continued under Abbot Nunnus, and completed under Abbot John (colophon, f.275v) and in its possession until the 14th century.
The manuscript has six colophons, which describe the making of the manuscript and identify the scribes as Munnio and Domenico (f.277v), and the artist as Prior Petrus 'Prior Petrus . . . complevit et complendo ab integro illuminabit' (relative of Abbot Nunnus), who completed it on 1 July 1109 (f. 275v; see Notes, below). Munnio may also have responsible for some of the decoration (see Williams, Illustrated Beatus vol. 4, esp. p.32); (Note that Alexander observes that this may indicate only that he ordered the work).
? Cardinal Antonio of Aragon (b. 1618, d. 1650) by 1650; together with the rest of his library, probably became the possession of Antiono de Aragon’s brother, Pascual (d. 1677).
? Pascual of Aragon: probably bequeathed to the Colegio Viejo de San Bartolomé in Salamanca in 1677’ described with details in the 1770 catalogue of the college’s library (see J. Rojas y Contreras in F. Ruiz de Vergara, Historia del Colegio Viejo de San Bartolomé Mayor de la celebre Universidad de Salamanca, 3 vols (Madrid, 1770), III, p. 308).
Biblioteca Real in Madrid, acquired upon the dissolution of the Salamancan colegios mayores by Carlos IV in 1799; inscription ‘No. 98’ on f.1 relates to its number in the index of the manuscripts incorporated into the royal collection by Antonio Tavira y Almazán, Bishop of Salamanca, between between 1799 and 1801.
Purchased by the British Museum on 9 May 1840 from Joseph Bonaparte, count de Survilliers (b. 1768, d. 1844; King of Spain between 1808 and 1813) (inscription, front flyleaf).
Notes Full digital coverage available for this manuscript: see Digitised Manuscripts at http://www.bl.uk/manuscripts.
For detailed contents see Beatus (2003), pp. 24-54
Scribal glosses.
Musical notation, with Visigothic neumes.
The writing completed 18 April 1091 (colophon, ff.265v-266), illumination completed 1 July 1109 (colophon, f. 277v).
One of Neuss's 'Type II' Beatus manuscripts, which includes the Commentary on Daniel, with 14 illustrations, , or Klein's redaction 3a, as 'D'.
Select bibliography List of Additions to the Manuscripts in the British Museum in the Years 1836-1840 (London: British Museum, 1843), p. 4.

J. O. Westwood, Palaeographica Sacra Pictoria (London: William Smith, 1843-1845), no. 30.

Catalogue of Manuscript Maps, Charts and Plans, and of the Topographical Drawings in the British Museum, 3 vols (London: British Museum, 1844-1861), I, pp. 12-13.

Walter de Gray Birch and Henry Jenner, Early Drawings and Illuminations: An Introduction to the Study of Illustrated Manuscripts (London: Bagster and Sons, 1879), p. 5.

M. Férotin, Histoire de l'abbaye de Silos (Paris, 1897), pp. 264-69.

J. A. J. De Villiers, 'Famous Maps in the British Museum', The Geographical Journal, 44 (August 1914), 168-88 (p. 170).

[Eric G. Millar], British Museum Reproductions from Illuminated Manuscripts, Series 4 (London: British Museum, 1928), pl. 10.

W. Neuss, Die Apokalypse des hl. Johannes in der altspanischen und altchristlichen Bibel-Illustration, 2 vols (Münster in Westfalen, 1931), pp. 38-41, 106, 117.

J. Domínguez Bordona, 'Exlibris mozárabes', Archivo español de arte y arqueología, 11 (1935), 153-63 (p. 162).

Meyer Schapiro, 'From Mozarabic to Romanesque in Silo', Art Bulletin, 21 (1939), 313-74, (passim, figs 4-7, 9, 11, 16, 24, 26-7, 37).

Ernst Kitzinger, Early Medieval Art with Illustrations from the British Museum Collection (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1940), pl. 31.

L. Brou, 'Un antiphonaire mozarabe de Silos d'après les fragments du British Museum', Hispania Sacra, 5 (1952), 341-60.

René Crozet, 'Les représentations anthropo-zoomorphiques des évangelistes dans l'enluminure et dans la peinture murale aux époques carolingienne et romane', Cahiers de civilization médiévale, 1 (1958), 182-91 (p. 185).

T. Eriksson, 'L'Échelle de la perfection: Une nouvelle interprétation de la peinture murale de Chaldon', Cahiers de civilation médiévale, 7 (1964), 439-49 (p. 441, fig. 3).

C. R. Dodwell, Painting in Europe: 800 to 1200 (London: Penguin Books, 1971), pp. 106, 111-12, 224 n. 62, fig. 121.

Francis Klingender, Animals in Art and Thought to the End of the Middle Ages, ed. by Evelyn Antal and John Harthan (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1971), pp. 231-36, pls 141, 145.

John Williams, Early Spanish Manuscript Illumination (New York: Braziller, 1977), pp. 110-17, pls 36-40.

A.G. Watson, Catalogue of Dated and Datable Manuscripts c.700-1600 in the Department of Manuscripts, The British Library, 2 vols (London, 1979), I, no. 61.

François Avril, Jean-Pierre Aniel, Yolanta Zaluska, and others, Manuscrits enluminés de la péninsule ibérique (Paris: Bibliothèque nationale, 1982), p. 19.

M. C. Díaz y Díaz, Códices visigóticos en la monarquía leonesa (León, 1983), pp. 312-13.

Peter Barber, 'The Manuscript Legacy: Maps in the Department of Manuscripts', The Map Collector, 28 (1984), 18-24 (p. 18).

Richard Kenneth Emmerson and Suzanne Lewis, 'Census and Bibliography of Medieval Manuscripts containing Apocalypse Illustrations, ca. 800-1500', Traditio: Studies in Ancient and Medieval History, Thought and Religion, 41 (1984), 337-79, no. 15.

Los Beatos: Europalia 85 Espan~a, 26 september-30 november 1985, Nassaukapel, Koninklijke Bibliotheek Albert I (Brussels, 1985), no. 10, pp. 64-65, 76-77 [exhibition catalogue].

Jonathan J. G. Alexander, Medieval Illuminators and their Methods of Work (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992), p. 9.

A. Boylan, 'The Library at Santo Domingo de Silos and its catalogues (XIth-XVIIIth Centuries)', Revue Mabillon, nouv. sér., 3 (1992), 59-102 (esp. pp. 61, 70, 71, 74, 75, 77, 78).

The Art of Medieval Spain: A. D. 500-1200 (New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1993), no. 145 [exhibition catalogue].

Peter Lasko, Ars Sacra 800-1200, 2nd edn (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994), p. 161.

Carl Nordenfalk, Book Illumination: Early Middle Ages (Geneva: Editions d'art Albert Skira, 1995; originally printed as Early Medieval Painting, New York: Skira, 1957), p. 86.

Janet Backhouse, The Illuminated Page: Ten Centuries of Manuscript Painting in the British Library (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1997), no. 29.

Rose Walker, Views of Transition: Liturgy and Illumination in Medieval Spain, (London: British Library, 1998), pp. 65, 102, 116, 125, 127-29, 134, 219 and passim.

J. Williams, The Illustrated Beatus: A Corpus of the Illustrations of the Commentary on the Apocalypse, 5 vols (London, 1994-2002), I, pp. 24, 73, 93, 156, pls 31-33, figs 3, 100; IV, no. 16, pp. 31-40, figs 221-350.

The Apocalypse and the Shape of Things to Come, ed. by Frances Carey (London: British Museum, 1999), no. 4.

A. Millares Carlo, Corpus de códices visigóticos, ed. by M. C. Díaz y Díaz, A. M. Mundo Marcet, J. M. Ruiz Asencio, B. Casado Quintanilla, and E. Lecuona Ribot (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria: UNED, 1999), nº 106.

Beatus of Liébana: Codex of Santo Domingo de Silos Monastery, (Barcelona: Moleiro, 2001-2003). [Facsimile and commentary].

Alixe Bovey, Monsters and Grotesques in Medieval Manuscripts (London: British Library, 2002), p. 32, pl. 26.

Peter K. Klein, 'Eschatological Expectations and the Revised Beatus', in Church, State, Vellum, and Stone: Essays on Medieval Spain in Honor of John Williams, ed. by Therese Martin and Julie A. Harris, The Medieval and Early Modern Iberian World, 26 (Leiden: Brill, 2005), pp. 147-72 (pp. 149, 161).

Ann Boylan, 'The Silos Beatus and the Silos Scriptorium', in Church, State, Vellum, and Stone: Essays on Medieval Spain in Honor of John Williams, ed. by Therese Martin and Julie A. Harris, The Medieval and Early Modern Iberian World, 26 (Leiden: Brill, 2005), pp. 173-233.

Hispania Vetus: Musical-Liturgical Manuscripts from Visigothic Origins to the Franco-Roman Transition (9th-12th Centuries), ed. by Susana Zapke (Bilbao: BBVA Foundation, 2007), p. 198.

Scot McKendrick and Kathleen Doyle, Bible Manuscripts: 1400 Years of Scribes and Scripture (London: British Library, 2007), pp. 4-5, 10, 72-73; fig. 60.

Jacqueline Leclercq-Marx, 'Le rapport au gain illicite dans la sculpture romaine. Entre réalités socio-économiques, contacts de culture et réseaux métaphoriques', Cahiers de civilisation médiévale, 50 (2007), 43-63 (pp. 45 n. 18, 46, pl. 1).

La miniatura medieval en la Penísula Ibérica, ed. by Joaquín Yarza (Murcia: Nausícaä, 2007), p. 474, fig. 4.

Babylon: Myth and Reality, ed. by I. L. Finkel and M. J. Seymour (London: British Museum, 2008), pp. 157-58, figs 141-43 [exhibition catalogue].

Ainoa Castro, 'Codex of the Month (II): London, BL, Add. Ms. 11695', Littera visigothica, online at http://litteravisigothica.wordpress.com/2014/11/23/codex-of-the-month-ii/ [accessed 2.12.2014].


Images

ff. 1-4v
Antiphoner (fragment)
* * *
 
VR initials

f. 1
VR initials
Initials and neumes

f. 1v
Initials and neumes
Hell

f. 2
Hell
 
Oviedo Cross

f. 2v
Oviedo Cross
Oviedo Cross

f. 3v
Oviedo Cross
'VPR' (Vespertinum) monogram

f. 4
'VPR' (Vespertinum) monogram
 
'LUX' monogram

f. 4v
'LUX' monogram
Map of the world

ff. 39v-40
Map of the world

ff. 5v-217v
Beatus of Liébana Commentary on the Apocalypse (The 'Silos Apocalypse'; 'Silos Beatus') (New Testament, Bible)
* * *
 
Oviedo Cross

f. 5v
Oviedo Cross
Labyrinth

f. 6
Labyrinth
Colophon

f.6v
Colophon
 
Christ in Majesty

f. 7v
Christ in Majesty
St John the Evangelist

f. 8
St John the Evangelist
Revelation to St John

f. 18v
Revelation to St John
 
Appearance of Christ in a cloud

f. 21
Appearance of Christ in a cloud
St John at Ephesus

f. 23v
St John at Ephesus
St John is instructed to write the Apocalypse

f. 24
St John is instructed to write the Apocalypse
 
Paradise

f. 40
Paradise
The message to the Church at Ephesus

f. 52
The message to the Church at Ephesus
Message to the Church at Smyrna

f. 54v
Message to the Church at Smyrna
 
Message to the Church of Pergamus

f. 59v
Message to the Church of Pergamus
Message to the Church of Thyatira

f. 64
Message to the Church of Thyatira
Message to the Church of Sardes

f. 68
Message to the Church of Sardes
 
Message to the Church of Philadelphia

f. 72
Message to the Church of Philadelphia
Message to the Church of Laodicea

f. 77v
Message to the Church of Laodicea
Noah's ark

f. 79v
Noah's ark
 
St John

f. 82v
St John
Vision of God before the opening of the Seven Seals

f. 83
Vision of God before the opening of the Seven Seals
The Lamb and the four Living Creatures

f. 86v
The Lamb and the four Living Creatures
 
Enthroned king

f. 102
Enthroned king
Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse

f. 102v
Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse
The fifth seal

f. 105v
The fifth seal
 
The sixth seal: fall of the stars

f. 108
The sixth seal: fall of the stars
The four angels and four winds

f. 111
The four angels and four winds
The 144,000 chosen of Israel

f. 112v
The 144,000 chosen of Israel
 
The 144,000 chosen of Israel

f. 113
The 144,000 chosen of Israel
Palm tree

f. 124
Palm tree
Seven angels with trumpets

f. 126
Seven angels with trumpets
 
The first trumpet

f. 127
The first trumpet
The second trumpet

f. 128v
The second trumpet
The third trumpet

f. 129
The third trumpet
 
The fourth trumpet

f. 130
The fourth trumpet
Angel

f. 131
Angel
The angel and the infernal locusts

f. 133v
The angel and the infernal locusts
 
The sixth trumpet

f. 135
The sixth trumpet
St John receiving God's instructions

f. 138v
St John receiving God's instructions
St John measuring the Temple

f. 139
St John measuring the Temple
 
Enoch and Elias

f. 141v
Enoch and Elias
The Antichrist

f, 143
The Antichrist
The witnesses and the earthquake

f. 144
The witnesses and the earthquake
 
The seventh trumpet

f. 145v
The seventh trumpet
The Beast and the Temple

f. 146
The Beast and the Temple
The Woman and the Beast

ff. 147v-148
The Woman and the Beast
 
The Woman and the Beast

ff. 147v-148
The Woman and the Beast
The adoration of the Beast

f. 151v
The adoration of the Beast
The Beast and the Dragon

f. 152
The Beast and the Dragon
 
The second beast

f. 155
The second beast
The vixen and the cockerel

f. 157
The vixen and the cockerel
Table of the Antichrist

f. 160v
Table of the Antichrist
 
Table of the Antichrist

f. 161v
Table of the Antichrist
The Lamb on Mount Zion

f. 164
The Lamb on Mount Zion
The Angel and the Fall of Babylon

f. 166
The Angel and the Fall of Babylon
 
The Son of Man and the Angel

f. 168
The Son of Man and the Angel
A king on a horse

f. 170
A king on a horse
The seven angels and the seven plagues

f. 170v
The seven angels and the seven plagues
 
The open Temple

f. 172
The open Temple
The seven angels of the plagues

f. 173
The seven angels of the plagues
The First Angel

f. 174v
The First Angel
 
The Second and Third Angels

f. 175
The Second and Third Angels
The Fourth Angel

f. 176v
The Fourth Angel
The Fifth Angel

f. 177v
The Fifth Angel
 
The Sixth Angel

f. 178
The Sixth Angel
The three foul spirits

f. 178v
The three foul spirits
The Seventh Angel

f. 181
The Seventh Angel
 
The Whore of Babylon

f. 182v
The Whore of Babylon
The woman on the seven-headed Beast

f. 183v
The woman on the seven-headed Beast
The Triumph of the Lamb

f. 188
The Triumph of the Lamb
 
The fire of Babylon

f. 190v
The fire of Babylon
People mourning

f. 191
People mourning
The angel and the mill stone

f. 193
The angel and the mill stone
 
Christ in Majesty

f. 194v
Christ in Majesty
Six horsemen

f. 196
Six horsemen
The Angel on the Sun

f. 197
The Angel on the Sun
 
The rider and the Beast

f. 198v
The rider and the Beast
The Angel chains Satan

f. 199v
The Angel chains Satan
The righteous and the martyrs

f. 201
The righteous and the martyrs
 
The Beast's last attack

f. 202v
The Beast's last attack
Punishment in the fire

f. 204v
Punishment in the fire
The Last Judgement (left)

f. 205v
The Last Judgement (left)
 
The Last Judgement (right)

f. 206r
The Last Judgement (right)
The New Jerusalem

f. 208v
The New Jerusalem
The River of Life

f. 209
The River of Life
 
John at the angel's feet

f. 216
John at the angel's feet

ff. 218-219v
Isidore of Seville Excerpts from the Etymologies including a table of kinship
* * *
 
Table of kinship

f. 218
Table of kinship

ff. 220r-266r
Jerome Commentary on Daniel
* * *
 
The siege of Jerusalem

f. 222v
The siege of Jerusalem
Soldiers attacking Jerusalem

f. 223
Soldiers attacking Jerusalem
Nebuchadnezzar's dream

f. 224v
Nebuchadnezzar's dream
 
Nebuchadnezzar and the mountain

f. 225r
Nebuchadnezzar and the mountain
Nebuchadnezzar

f. 228v
Nebuchadnezzar
The Golden Statue

f. 229
The Golden Statue
 
Nebuchadnezzar's fourth vision

f. 232v
Nebuchadnezzar's fourth vision
Balthasar's feast

f. 235
Balthasar's feast
King Darius

f. 238v
King Darius
 
Daniel in the lion's den

f. 239r
Daniel in the lion's den
The vision of the Ancient of Days

f. 240
The vision of the Ancient of Days
Susa and the ram and goat

f. 243v
Susa and the ram and goat
 
Daniel and the archangel Gabriel

f. 245r
Daniel and the archangel Gabriel
Daniel's illness

f. 245v
Daniel's illness
Two men who do not see the angel

f. 251v
Two men who do not see the angel
 
The angel over the River Tigris

f. 252r
The angel over the River Tigris
Tree

f. 266
Tree

ff.268r-279v
Miscellaneous texts, some attributed to Jerome, Gregory and Augustine
* * *
 
Labyrinth

f. 276
Labyrinth
Oviedo Cross

f. 277
Oviedo Cross
Explicit

f. 278
Explicit
 

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