Greek manuscripts

A leaf from the Golden Canon Tables
The Golden Canon Tables, Add MS 5111, ff 10r-12r, Constantinople, 6th-7th century

Our collections constitute one of the largest and most important resources outside Greece for the study of Hellenic culture.

About the collection

Manuscripts of Greek texts form a relatively small, but significant part of the Library’s vast holdings of around 150 million items. Ranging in date from the 3rd century BC to the present century and in format from papyrus rolls and codices to ostraca, wooden and metal tablets, parchment and paper documents and codices, they bear eloquent testimony to the rich culture of Greek-speaking people from the time of the creation of the Iliad and Odyssey through the classical, Hellenistic, early Christian, Byzantine and Ottoman eras and beyond the creation of the Greek nation state. They also exemplify the passionate interest of successive generations of British scholars and collectors in Hellenic culture.

The British Library’s collection of Greek manuscript codices is one of the most substantial in the world, comprising around 1,000 items. The collection has considerable depth, including, for example, two of the three oldest Greek Bibles, the remains of some 227 manuscripts of the Greek New Testament, and around 50 Greek codices dating from the first millennium.

The collection has been built up over several centuries through purchase and donation. Its development reflects the opportunism and discrimination of successive Keepers of Manuscripts, as well as past trends in scholarship and collecting within Britain.

What is available online?

Most of the British Library’s Greek manuscripts are now accessible online. As a result of the Library’s Greek Manuscripts Digitisation Project, which began in 2008 and is funded by the Stavros Niarchos Foundation, full digital coverage and new catalogue descriptions of 905 Greek manuscripts are now available to researchers.

A guide to the Greek Manuscripts collections, including articles, videos and collection highlights, is available here.

What is available in our Reading Rooms?

Most of the manuscripts, papyri, and seals can be consulted by anyone with a Reader Pass in the Manuscripts Reading Room. Some particularly fragile or rare items may require that you have a letter of introduction on file in the Reading Room. Others (including all the ostraka) require special permission before they can be issued. You are advised to check the relevant catalogue entry online in advance of your visit.

What is available in other organisations?

The website Pinakes assembles information about Greek manuscripts held all around the world, including details of contents, scribes, ownership history, and whether the manuscript has been digitised.

Further information

  • Marcel Richard, Inventaire des manuscrits grecs du British Museum, I: Fonds Sloane, Additional, Egerton, Cottonian et Stowe (Paris, 1952)
  • The British Library Summary Catalogue of Greek Manuscripts, I (London, 1999) 

How to guides

Find papyri

How to identify papyri and request them

Guide to Explore Archives and Manuscripts

A guide to help you use the catalogue, covering: login, search, how to manage your results, how to browse the collections and how to request items

About Explore Archives and Manuscripts

With Explore Archives and Manuscripts you can search for information about our rich and unique archive and manuscript collections.

How to reuse images of unpublished manuscripts

Guide to the copyright of unpublished documents

Access manuscripts and archives

Accessing manuscripts and archives and obtaining a Letter of introduction or recommendation

How to order images

Instructions on how to order images of the British Library's collections from our Imaging Services

Get a Reader Pass

Access over 170 million collection items for free with a Reader Pass.

Find Persian manuscripts

Details of Persian manuscripts are to be found in a number of catalogues

Find Arabic manuscripts

Details of Arabic manuscripts are to be found in a number of catalogues

How to handle archives

Watch our guide and help us keep our archive material in good condition

Search for Cyrillic items in the catalogue

How to search for Cyrillic items in the catalogue

Find and request Lord Chamberlain's Plays

How to locate items in our largest single manuscript collection

How to handle folded items

Find out how you should hand items like large maps and book inserts.

Find Hebrew manuscripts

Guide to finding Hebrew manuscripts in our online catalogues

Find charters, rolls, and seals

How to access medieval and early modern European documentary collections

How to get a Reader Pass if you are under 18

How to apply for an under 18 Reader Pass

Guide to researching provenance of books now in the British Library

Where do the British Library’s old printed books ‘come from'? Who owned or read them in centuries past? Why does it matter?