The new All Hallows (All Saints) Church in Northampton was re-opened in 1701, following a devastating town fire in 1675. Comparisons were made between the new church and Sir Christopher Wren’s St Mary-at-Hill, erected after the Great Fire of London (1666). Peter Tillemans’ study is ruled over with a red grid, which would have helped the artist to render form and architectural detail accurately and to scale. Ruling a grid over an image is also a way to prepare it for copying it onto another surface.