This early twelfth-century Psalter, or book of the Psalms, was copied in an English monastery, probably Canterbury. It contains a French translation parallel to the Latin, so that the two can be read together and compared. In this text the opening line of the Lord’s Prayer becomes Li nostre pere ki ies es ciels (‘Our Father who art in heaven’). The use of 'ki' where the English letter, ‘k’ replaces the French 'qu' of ‘qui’ (who) is a feature of the dialect of French used in England and in Normandy in this period.
This manuscript was digitised with the support of The Polonsky Foundation.
- Article by:
- Hannah Morcos
- History and learning
Hannah Morcos looks at how the vernacular of northern France evolved from a regional spoken language to a cross-European written medium between the 8th and 12th centuries.