Caricature of George IV as Coriolanus by George Cruikshank, 1820

Description

Throughout history, Shakespeare’s Coriolanus has frequently been adopted or adapted for purposes of propaganda or political commentary. This item is a satirical print by caricaturist and literary illustrator George Cruikshank (1792–1878). It depicts King George IV as Coriolanus addressing an audience of cowering ‘plebeians’ outside his residence, Carlton House Palace. Below is written a part of Martius’s speech to the plebeians in Act, Scene 1, followed by a quotation (in French) from Buffon praising the nobility of the figure above (i.e. the king).

Social unrest

The period 1815–20 was one of great social unrest for Britain, which was still recovering from the Napoleonic wars. After the repeal of income tax in 1816, taxes disproportionately affected the poor and benefited the rich, who were reaping repayments of national debt. The poor were also affected by bad harvests; decreasing wages and grain prices for farmers; and increasing enclosures, unemployment and food prices. This all contributed to the disaffection of an increasingly unruly populous, who resented their corrupt government and the wasteful lavish spending of the King.

This caricature was issued on 29 February 1820, the day the Parliament of King George III (who had died a month before) was dissolved and six days after the discovery of the Cato Street Conspiracy to murder the prime minister and all the cabinet. The crowd of plebeians depicts contemporary reformers (radicals on the left and moderates on the right) including Arthur Thistlewood (one of the Cato Street Conspirators), William Cobbett (a farmer and pamphleteer) and Cruikshank himself. They wear bonnets-rouge (red caps associated with Roman freedmen and previous workers’ revolts) and carry reformist banners.

The print is often interpreted as a pro-government tableaux with George IV looking dignified as Coriolanus and the plebeians shrinking back in fear. However, it is possible that the ambivalence of Shakespeare’s play, and indeed the presence of the artist (who had produced numerous anti-government and anti-George pieces) among the plebeians, loads this image with potential criticism of the monarch too, and perhaps a more subtle critique of the situation as a whole.

Full title:
Coriolanus addressing the Plebeians ... with an autograph description of the caricature by the artist
Published:
1820, London
Format:
Etching / Print / Illustration / Image
Language:
English
Creator:
George Cruikshank
Usage terms

Folger Source call number: ART File S528c2 no.56 (size XS), Digital Image File Name: 25770. Used by permission of the Folger Shakespeare Library under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Held by
Folger Shakespeare Library
Shelfmark:
ART File S528c2 no.56 (size XS), Digital Image File Name: 25770

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