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This volume contains De Oratore (On the Orator), a rhetorical treatise by the Roman philosopher and statesman Cicero (b. 106 BC, d. 43 BC). His speeches and works of rhetoric were the cornerstone of Latin education throughout the Middle Ages and during the Renaissance. More manuscripts of Cicero’s work survive than of any classical Latin author.

Classical works were frequently borrowed from monasteries in England and on the Continent in order to make copies of texts. This book was produced between 830 and 836 by the Benedictine monk Lupus of Ferrières (b. c. 805, d. c. 862) in the abbey of Fulda, in modern-day Germany or in Ferrières Abbey, in Central France.

Surviving letter collections show that while studying in Fulda, Lupus wrote to Einhard (b. c. 775, d. 840), a renowned Frankish scholar and the biographer of Emperor Charlemagne (r.768–814) asking for permission to copy De Oratore and several other texts. Lupus probably received this permission, as his copy of the work still survives.

This manuscript was digitised with the support of The Polonsky Foundation.