This briefing provides information on the conditionality requirements, and potential sanctions for non-compliance, associated with Employment and Support Allowance (ESA). Under ESA, many people will be expected to attend a number of work focused interviews and undertake some form of work-related activity in exchange for their benefit; this requirement is known as conditionality. If they do not, they may see their benefit reduced or stopped altogether, known as a sanction. Members of the work-related activity group of ESA are likely to be required to: attend six work focused interviews; undertake some form of work-related activity; and/or, take part in the Work Programme should they be referred by their personal advisers. There is little detail about what constitutes work-related activity under ESA. It is the Government’s intention that this is flexible, so that requirements can be personalised to the particular circumstances of the individual.